Limits...
Effect of Provision of Feed and Water during Transport on the Welfare of Weaned Pigs.

Garcia A, Pirner G, Picinin G, May M, Guay K, Backus B, Sutherland M, McGlone J - Animals (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: WEAN+, WEAN-, TRANS+, and TRANS- groups all had a loss in body weight of 5.9% ± 0.45%, 7.8% ± 0.45%, 6.5% ± 0.45% and 9.1% ± 0.46%, respectively.TRANS+ females had higher creatine kinase (CK) levels than males (p < 0.05).Significant changes in behavior were observed during and after transportation, which could also be indicative of stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. arlene.garcia@ttu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Transportation is a complex stressor made up of factors including weaning itself and withdrawal from feed and water. Therefore, transportation has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Pigs were transported for 32 h and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Treatment groups included pigs not weaned or transported (CON), weaned pigs provided with feed and water (WEAN+), weaned pigs not provided with feed and water (WEAN-), weaned and transported pigs provided with feed and water (TRANS+), and weaned and transported pigs not provided with feed and water (TRANS-). Body weight loss was different among treatments (p < 0.01). CON pigs had a 6.5% ± 0.45% gain in body weight after 32 h. WEAN+, WEAN-, TRANS+, and TRANS- groups all had a loss in body weight of 5.9% ± 0.45%, 7.8% ± 0.45%, 6.5% ± 0.45% and 9.1% ± 0.46%, respectively. The N:L was greater in all weaned pigs at 8 h compared to CON pigs (p < 0.01). WEAN- and transported pigs had significantly higher N:L than CON pigs from 8 h through 16 h, however, all treatment groups were similar to CON pigs after 16 h irrespective of provision of feed and water. Blood glucose levels were lower in transported and/or weaned pigs than CON pigs after 16 h irrespective of the provision of feed and water. TRANS+ females had higher creatine kinase (CK) levels than males (p < 0.05). After a 16 h transport period, TRANS- pigs had higher total plasma protein (TP) levels than all other treatment groups (p < 0.05). Significant changes in behavior were observed during and after transportation, which could also be indicative of stress. Overall, transportation and weaning had a negative effect on performance, physiology and behavior (both during and post-weaning) of pigs, especially when feed and water was not provided. Transporting pigs without feed and water for more than 24 h was a welfare concern as indicated by changes in body weight and physiology measures of stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Least squares means ± SEM for time by treatment interaction for lying behaviors in 2 h intervals post-treatment (p < 0.05; pooled SE = 2.0). Treatments: not weaned, not transported (CON; n = 24); weaned, not transported, provided feed and water (WEAN+; n = 24); weaned, not transported, and not provided feed and water (WEAN−; n = 24); weaned and transported, provided feed and water (TRANS+; n = 24); and weaned and transported, not provided feed and water (TRANS−; n = 24). a,b Means with different superscripts within time differ at p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494410&req=5

animals-05-00363-f004: Least squares means ± SEM for time by treatment interaction for lying behaviors in 2 h intervals post-treatment (p < 0.05; pooled SE = 2.0). Treatments: not weaned, not transported (CON; n = 24); weaned, not transported, provided feed and water (WEAN+; n = 24); weaned, not transported, and not provided feed and water (WEAN−; n = 24); weaned and transported, provided feed and water (TRANS+; n = 24); and weaned and transported, not provided feed and water (TRANS−; n = 24). a,b Means with different superscripts within time differ at p < 0.05.

Mentions: The treatment by time interaction for lying behavior during the 24 h post-treatment period was significant (p < 0.01). Lying behaviors were different at 2 and 22 h post-treatment. At 2 h post-treatment, lying times were similar between WEAN+ pigs and CON pigs, and the time spent lying was higher than for the other treatment groups (Figure 4). TRANS+, TRANS−, and WEAN− pigs differed significantly in lying behaviors compared to CON pigs at 2 h post-treatment. TRANS+, TRANS− and WEAN− pigs spent less time lying than CON and WEAN+ pigs (p < 0.05). At 22 h post-treatment all treatment groups displayed similar lying times to CON pigs except for WEAN+ pigs. WEAN+ pigs spent more time lying than all other groups 22 h post-treatment (p < 0.05). From 4 to 20 h and at 32 h post-treatment lying behaviors were similar among treatments. Space allowance, season and transport duration can affect the behavioral response of weaned pigs, both during and post-transport [9,24,29].


Effect of Provision of Feed and Water during Transport on the Welfare of Weaned Pigs.

Garcia A, Pirner G, Picinin G, May M, Guay K, Backus B, Sutherland M, McGlone J - Animals (Basel) (2015)

Least squares means ± SEM for time by treatment interaction for lying behaviors in 2 h intervals post-treatment (p < 0.05; pooled SE = 2.0). Treatments: not weaned, not transported (CON; n = 24); weaned, not transported, provided feed and water (WEAN+; n = 24); weaned, not transported, and not provided feed and water (WEAN−; n = 24); weaned and transported, provided feed and water (TRANS+; n = 24); and weaned and transported, not provided feed and water (TRANS−; n = 24). a,b Means with different superscripts within time differ at p < 0.05.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494410&req=5

animals-05-00363-f004: Least squares means ± SEM for time by treatment interaction for lying behaviors in 2 h intervals post-treatment (p < 0.05; pooled SE = 2.0). Treatments: not weaned, not transported (CON; n = 24); weaned, not transported, provided feed and water (WEAN+; n = 24); weaned, not transported, and not provided feed and water (WEAN−; n = 24); weaned and transported, provided feed and water (TRANS+; n = 24); and weaned and transported, not provided feed and water (TRANS−; n = 24). a,b Means with different superscripts within time differ at p < 0.05.
Mentions: The treatment by time interaction for lying behavior during the 24 h post-treatment period was significant (p < 0.01). Lying behaviors were different at 2 and 22 h post-treatment. At 2 h post-treatment, lying times were similar between WEAN+ pigs and CON pigs, and the time spent lying was higher than for the other treatment groups (Figure 4). TRANS+, TRANS−, and WEAN− pigs differed significantly in lying behaviors compared to CON pigs at 2 h post-treatment. TRANS+, TRANS− and WEAN− pigs spent less time lying than CON and WEAN+ pigs (p < 0.05). At 22 h post-treatment all treatment groups displayed similar lying times to CON pigs except for WEAN+ pigs. WEAN+ pigs spent more time lying than all other groups 22 h post-treatment (p < 0.05). From 4 to 20 h and at 32 h post-treatment lying behaviors were similar among treatments. Space allowance, season and transport duration can affect the behavioral response of weaned pigs, both during and post-transport [9,24,29].

Bottom Line: WEAN+, WEAN-, TRANS+, and TRANS- groups all had a loss in body weight of 5.9% ± 0.45%, 7.8% ± 0.45%, 6.5% ± 0.45% and 9.1% ± 0.46%, respectively.TRANS+ females had higher creatine kinase (CK) levels than males (p < 0.05).Significant changes in behavior were observed during and after transportation, which could also be indicative of stress.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal and Food Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA. arlene.garcia@ttu.edu.

ABSTRACT
Transportation is a complex stressor made up of factors including weaning itself and withdrawal from feed and water. Therefore, transportation has the potential to negatively impact the health and welfare of weaned pigs. Pigs were transported for 32 h and measures of performance, physiology, and behavior were taken to assess piglet welfare. Treatment groups included pigs not weaned or transported (CON), weaned pigs provided with feed and water (WEAN+), weaned pigs not provided with feed and water (WEAN-), weaned and transported pigs provided with feed and water (TRANS+), and weaned and transported pigs not provided with feed and water (TRANS-). Body weight loss was different among treatments (p < 0.01). CON pigs had a 6.5% ± 0.45% gain in body weight after 32 h. WEAN+, WEAN-, TRANS+, and TRANS- groups all had a loss in body weight of 5.9% ± 0.45%, 7.8% ± 0.45%, 6.5% ± 0.45% and 9.1% ± 0.46%, respectively. The N:L was greater in all weaned pigs at 8 h compared to CON pigs (p < 0.01). WEAN- and transported pigs had significantly higher N:L than CON pigs from 8 h through 16 h, however, all treatment groups were similar to CON pigs after 16 h irrespective of provision of feed and water. Blood glucose levels were lower in transported and/or weaned pigs than CON pigs after 16 h irrespective of the provision of feed and water. TRANS+ females had higher creatine kinase (CK) levels than males (p < 0.05). After a 16 h transport period, TRANS- pigs had higher total plasma protein (TP) levels than all other treatment groups (p < 0.05). Significant changes in behavior were observed during and after transportation, which could also be indicative of stress. Overall, transportation and weaning had a negative effect on performance, physiology and behavior (both during and post-weaning) of pigs, especially when feed and water was not provided. Transporting pigs without feed and water for more than 24 h was a welfare concern as indicated by changes in body weight and physiology measures of stress.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus