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The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

Evans K, Moore RJ, Harris S - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members.Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd.We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. kate@elephantsforafrica.org.

ABSTRACT
Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cumulative changes in the area used by Nandipa in the months following her release. Area was measured using 100% and 95% minimum convex polygons (MCPs) and 95% and 70% kernels; 70% kernels were used to define core areas.
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animals-03-00370-f003: Cumulative changes in the area used by Nandipa in the months following her release. Area was measured using 100% and 95% minimum convex polygons (MCPs) and 95% and 70% kernels; 70% kernels were used to define core areas.

Mentions: Between September 2003 and February 2005 Nandipa used an area of 2,017 km2 (100% MCP). Season did not affect the area used (Kruskal-Wallis 100% MCP: H2 = 0.31, P = 0.857; 95% MCP H2 = 0.56, P = 0.757; 95% kernel H2 = 4.67, P = 0.097; 70% kernel H2 = 5.19, P = 0.075), but the area used increased with time post-release (Figure 3), although her core area of activity remained fairly constant, with seasonal averages of 37.5 ± 11.2 (SE) km2. While Nandipa travelled up to 42 km from her release site, she continued to use the area in and around the release site following the period of intensive monitoring, and her core area was focused on the 20 km2 she used while part of the Abu herd. The daily distance travelled was affected by season (one-way ANOVA: F = 8.88, P < 0.001), with the mean daily distance travelled significantly lower in the dry (1.41 ± 0.14 km) than in the rainy (2.77 ± 0.18 km) or flood (2.61 ± 0.20 km) seasons.


The Release of a Captive-Raised Female African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) in the Okavango Delta, Botswana.

Evans K, Moore RJ, Harris S - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Cumulative changes in the area used by Nandipa in the months following her release. Area was measured using 100% and 95% minimum convex polygons (MCPs) and 95% and 70% kernels; 70% kernels were used to define core areas.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494400&req=5

animals-03-00370-f003: Cumulative changes in the area used by Nandipa in the months following her release. Area was measured using 100% and 95% minimum convex polygons (MCPs) and 95% and 70% kernels; 70% kernels were used to define core areas.
Mentions: Between September 2003 and February 2005 Nandipa used an area of 2,017 km2 (100% MCP). Season did not affect the area used (Kruskal-Wallis 100% MCP: H2 = 0.31, P = 0.857; 95% MCP H2 = 0.56, P = 0.757; 95% kernel H2 = 4.67, P = 0.097; 70% kernel H2 = 5.19, P = 0.075), but the area used increased with time post-release (Figure 3), although her core area of activity remained fairly constant, with seasonal averages of 37.5 ± 11.2 (SE) km2. While Nandipa travelled up to 42 km from her release site, she continued to use the area in and around the release site following the period of intensive monitoring, and her core area was focused on the 20 km2 she used while part of the Abu herd. The daily distance travelled was affected by season (one-way ANOVA: F = 8.88, P < 0.001), with the mean daily distance travelled significantly lower in the dry (1.41 ± 0.14 km) than in the rainy (2.77 ± 0.18 km) or flood (2.61 ± 0.20 km) seasons.

Bottom Line: Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members.Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd.We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. kate@elephantsforafrica.org.

ABSTRACT
Wild female elephants live in close-knit matrilineal groups and housing captive elephants in artificial social groupings can cause significant welfare issues for individuals not accepted by other group members. We document the release of a captive-raised female elephant used in the safari industry because of welfare and management problems. She was fitted with a satellite collar, and spatial and behavioural data were collected over a 17-month period to quantify her interactions with the wild population. She was then monitored infrequently for a further five-and-a-half years. We observed few signs of aggression towards her from the wild elephants with which she socialized. She used an area of comparable size to wild female elephants, and this continued to increase as she explored new areas. Although she did not fully integrate into a wild herd, she had three calves of her own, and formed a social unit with another female and her calf that were later released from the same captive herd. We recommend that release to the wild be considered as a management option for other captive female elephants.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus