Limits...
Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning.

Starling MJ, Branson N, Cody D, McGreevy PD - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours.These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal.Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia. mjstarling@fastmail.com.au.

ABSTRACT
Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

No MeSH data available.


Conceptual response landscape for training heeling off leash in domestic dogs using different operant training methods.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494394&req=5

animals-03-00300-f003: Conceptual response landscape for training heeling off leash in domestic dogs using different operant training methods.

Mentions: Figure 3 shows the conceptual response landscape for training a dog to heel off leash. In the figure, two views of the same response landscape are shown: aerial view on left and side view on right. Red = positive reinforcement, blue = negative reinforcement, orange = negative punishment, green = positive punishment. The y-axis tracks the probability of a dog heeling off leash depending on the dog’s affective (z-axis) and arousal states (x-axis), both of which are shown on a simple, representative scale of 0–10, where 0 is low arousal and a very negative affective state and 10 is high arousal and a very positive affective state, respectively. This behaviour requires the dog to willingly approach and remain in close proximity to the handler, as the behaviour by definition must be performed without the aid of restraining tools. Positive reinforcement dominates the response landscape in efficacy as it is well suited to encouraging approach behaviour. Its efficacy peaks at moderate arousal and positive affective state. At high arousal and very positive affective state, negative punishment may prove effective as it offers a means to decrease extraneous behaviour that may result from increased activity directed towards seeking and acquiring reinforcers. Restricting access to environmental reinforcers may be more difficult to achieve with the dog off leash, but may remain effective where it is possible. Response landscape graphs may be accessed in interactive form at the following URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2123/8989.


Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning.

Starling MJ, Branson N, Cody D, McGreevy PD - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Conceptual response landscape for training heeling off leash in domestic dogs using different operant training methods.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494394&req=5

animals-03-00300-f003: Conceptual response landscape for training heeling off leash in domestic dogs using different operant training methods.
Mentions: Figure 3 shows the conceptual response landscape for training a dog to heel off leash. In the figure, two views of the same response landscape are shown: aerial view on left and side view on right. Red = positive reinforcement, blue = negative reinforcement, orange = negative punishment, green = positive punishment. The y-axis tracks the probability of a dog heeling off leash depending on the dog’s affective (z-axis) and arousal states (x-axis), both of which are shown on a simple, representative scale of 0–10, where 0 is low arousal and a very negative affective state and 10 is high arousal and a very positive affective state, respectively. This behaviour requires the dog to willingly approach and remain in close proximity to the handler, as the behaviour by definition must be performed without the aid of restraining tools. Positive reinforcement dominates the response landscape in efficacy as it is well suited to encouraging approach behaviour. Its efficacy peaks at moderate arousal and positive affective state. At high arousal and very positive affective state, negative punishment may prove effective as it offers a means to decrease extraneous behaviour that may result from increased activity directed towards seeking and acquiring reinforcers. Restricting access to environmental reinforcers may be more difficult to achieve with the dog off leash, but may remain effective where it is possible. Response landscape graphs may be accessed in interactive form at the following URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2123/8989.

Bottom Line: It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours.These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal.Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia. mjstarling@fastmail.com.au.

ABSTRACT
Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

No MeSH data available.