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Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning.

Starling MJ, Branson N, Cody D, McGreevy PD - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours.These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal.Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia. mjstarling@fastmail.com.au.

ABSTRACT
Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

No MeSH data available.


Combined conceptual response landscape for training heeling on leash in dogs using different operant training methods.
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animals-03-00300-f002: Combined conceptual response landscape for training heeling on leash in dogs using different operant training methods.

Mentions: Figure 2 shows the conceptual response landscape for training heeling on leash in dogs with all operant conditioning approaches combined into the one landscape. This illustrates how the shapes of each operant conditioning response landscape may interact with one another, showing where approaches may be most effective compared to other approaches. In the figure, two views of the same response landscape are shown: aerial view on left and side view on right. Red = positive reinforcement, blue = negative reinforcement, orange = negative punishment, green = positive punishment. The y-axis tracks the probability of a dog heeling on leash depending on the dog’s affective (z-axis) and arousal states (x-axis), both of which are shown on a simple, representative scale of 0–10, where 0 is low arousal and a very negative affective state and 10 is high arousal and a very positive affective state, respectively. This behaviour is performed in the presence of a leash, which may provide an effective means of applying negative reinforcement. Both positive and negative reinforcement are expected to gradually decrease in efficacy as arousal increases and affective state becomes positive, resulting in dogs displaying more energetically costly behaviour that may be at odds with steady, controlled movement, but positive reinforcement is predicted to peak at moderate arousal rather than low arousal. This contrasts with the response landscape for negative reinforcement and accounts for the apparent division in the negative reinforcement landscape by a knoll that erupts through the positive reinforcement landscape. Response landscape graphs may be accessed in interactive form at the following URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2123/8989.


Conceptualising the Impact of Arousal and Affective State on Training Outcomes of Operant Conditioning.

Starling MJ, Branson N, Cody D, McGreevy PD - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Combined conceptual response landscape for training heeling on leash in dogs using different operant training methods.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494394&req=5

animals-03-00300-f002: Combined conceptual response landscape for training heeling on leash in dogs using different operant training methods.
Mentions: Figure 2 shows the conceptual response landscape for training heeling on leash in dogs with all operant conditioning approaches combined into the one landscape. This illustrates how the shapes of each operant conditioning response landscape may interact with one another, showing where approaches may be most effective compared to other approaches. In the figure, two views of the same response landscape are shown: aerial view on left and side view on right. Red = positive reinforcement, blue = negative reinforcement, orange = negative punishment, green = positive punishment. The y-axis tracks the probability of a dog heeling on leash depending on the dog’s affective (z-axis) and arousal states (x-axis), both of which are shown on a simple, representative scale of 0–10, where 0 is low arousal and a very negative affective state and 10 is high arousal and a very positive affective state, respectively. This behaviour is performed in the presence of a leash, which may provide an effective means of applying negative reinforcement. Both positive and negative reinforcement are expected to gradually decrease in efficacy as arousal increases and affective state becomes positive, resulting in dogs displaying more energetically costly behaviour that may be at odds with steady, controlled movement, but positive reinforcement is predicted to peak at moderate arousal rather than low arousal. This contrasts with the response landscape for negative reinforcement and accounts for the apparent division in the negative reinforcement landscape by a knoll that erupts through the positive reinforcement landscape. Response landscape graphs may be accessed in interactive form at the following URL: http://hdl.handle.net/2123/8989.

Bottom Line: It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours.These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal.Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006, Australia. mjstarling@fastmail.com.au.

ABSTRACT
Animal training relies heavily on an understanding of species-specific behaviour as it integrates with operant conditioning principles. Following on from recent studies showing that affective states and arousal levels may correlate with behavioural outcomes, we explore the contribution of both affective state and arousal in behavioural responses to operant conditioning. This paper provides a framework for assessing how affective state and arousal may influence the efficacy of operant training methods. It provides a series of three-dimensional conceptual graphs as exemplars to describing putative influences of both affective state and arousal on the likelihood of dogs and horses performing commonly desired behaviours. These graphs are referred to as response landscapes, and they highlight the flexibility available for improving training efficacy and the likely need for different approaches to suit animals in different affective states and at various levels of arousal. Knowledge gaps are discussed and suggestions made for bridging them.

No MeSH data available.