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On the Possible Detection of Lightning Storms by Elephants.

Kelley MC, Garstang M - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10(-3) Pa.Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing.Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. mikek@ece.cornell.edu.

ABSTRACT
Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10(-3) Pa. Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing. Frequencies carrying these sounds might allow for interaural time delays such that adult elephants could not only hear but could also locate the source of these sounds. Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Savannah measurements of heat flux and inversion height. Sensible heat flux and inversion height over 24 hours over an open subtropical savanna. Mean values are shown from observations taken by a flux tower, vertical pointing, continuously operating SODAR and a profiling tethered balloon. The heavy line indicates a clearly defined inversion top, with dashes indicating disappearance of an inversion. The dashed line shows sensible heat flux (left ordinate) with the vertical lines delineating the stable region of negative heat flux at the surface [4].
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animals-03-00349-f002: Savannah measurements of heat flux and inversion height. Sensible heat flux and inversion height over 24 hours over an open subtropical savanna. Mean values are shown from observations taken by a flux tower, vertical pointing, continuously operating SODAR and a profiling tethered balloon. The heavy line indicates a clearly defined inversion top, with dashes indicating disappearance of an inversion. The dashed line shows sensible heat flux (left ordinate) with the vertical lines delineating the stable region of negative heat flux at the surface [4].

Mentions: When the subtropical savannas appeared and elephants moved from the shrinking forests to these open plains, atmospheric conditions during part of the 24-hour cycle resembled those of the forests. As shown in Figure 2, the presence of strong nocturnal temperature inversions allowed the elephants to utilize their long-distance, low-frequency capability to the fullest in this very different environment [2]. Note that in the presence of a stratified near-surface atmosphere (nocturnal inversion), the velocity field at higher altitudes is decoupled from the surface wind, resulting in very low or calm surface wind speeds.


On the Possible Detection of Lightning Storms by Elephants.

Kelley MC, Garstang M - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Savannah measurements of heat flux and inversion height. Sensible heat flux and inversion height over 24 hours over an open subtropical savanna. Mean values are shown from observations taken by a flux tower, vertical pointing, continuously operating SODAR and a profiling tethered balloon. The heavy line indicates a clearly defined inversion top, with dashes indicating disappearance of an inversion. The dashed line shows sensible heat flux (left ordinate) with the vertical lines delineating the stable region of negative heat flux at the surface [4].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494393&req=5

animals-03-00349-f002: Savannah measurements of heat flux and inversion height. Sensible heat flux and inversion height over 24 hours over an open subtropical savanna. Mean values are shown from observations taken by a flux tower, vertical pointing, continuously operating SODAR and a profiling tethered balloon. The heavy line indicates a clearly defined inversion top, with dashes indicating disappearance of an inversion. The dashed line shows sensible heat flux (left ordinate) with the vertical lines delineating the stable region of negative heat flux at the surface [4].
Mentions: When the subtropical savannas appeared and elephants moved from the shrinking forests to these open plains, atmospheric conditions during part of the 24-hour cycle resembled those of the forests. As shown in Figure 2, the presence of strong nocturnal temperature inversions allowed the elephants to utilize their long-distance, low-frequency capability to the fullest in this very different environment [2]. Note that in the presence of a stratified near-surface atmosphere (nocturnal inversion), the velocity field at higher altitudes is decoupled from the surface wind, resulting in very low or calm surface wind speeds.

Bottom Line: Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10(-3) Pa.Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing.Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. mikek@ece.cornell.edu.

ABSTRACT
Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10(-3) Pa. Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing. Frequencies carrying these sounds might allow for interaural time delays such that adult elephants could not only hear but could also locate the source of these sounds. Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus