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On the Possible Detection of Lightning Storms by Elephants.

Kelley MC, Garstang M - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10(-3) Pa.Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing.Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. mikek@ece.cornell.edu.

ABSTRACT
Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10(-3) Pa. Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing. Frequencies carrying these sounds might allow for interaural time delays such that adult elephants could not only hear but could also locate the source of these sounds. Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean values of rain forest meteorological conditions. Mean profiles of virtual potential temperature, θv (°K) (top panels), specific humidity, q (gm−3) (night is solid, day is dotted) (lower left-hand side), and wind speed, U (ms−1) (night is solid, day is dotted) (lower right-hand side) within a 45 m high rainforest. The θv profiles are identified by the hour of day over which they were averaged (12 = 1200; 25 = 0100, local time) [1].
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animals-03-00349-f001: Mean values of rain forest meteorological conditions. Mean profiles of virtual potential temperature, θv (°K) (top panels), specific humidity, q (gm−3) (night is solid, day is dotted) (lower left-hand side), and wind speed, U (ms−1) (night is solid, day is dotted) (lower right-hand side) within a 45 m high rainforest. The θv profiles are identified by the hour of day over which they were averaged (12 = 1200; 25 = 0100, local time) [1].

Mentions: The role of sound in the life of elephants can be traced back to their evolution in forests. Sight in a forest is of little value, and the distance over which smell can be used is limited by low levels of wind speed, as indicated in Figure 1, and by dispersion [1].


On the Possible Detection of Lightning Storms by Elephants.

Kelley MC, Garstang M - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Mean values of rain forest meteorological conditions. Mean profiles of virtual potential temperature, θv (°K) (top panels), specific humidity, q (gm−3) (night is solid, day is dotted) (lower left-hand side), and wind speed, U (ms−1) (night is solid, day is dotted) (lower right-hand side) within a 45 m high rainforest. The θv profiles are identified by the hour of day over which they were averaged (12 = 1200; 25 = 0100, local time) [1].
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494393&req=5

animals-03-00349-f001: Mean values of rain forest meteorological conditions. Mean profiles of virtual potential temperature, θv (°K) (top panels), specific humidity, q (gm−3) (night is solid, day is dotted) (lower left-hand side), and wind speed, U (ms−1) (night is solid, day is dotted) (lower right-hand side) within a 45 m high rainforest. The θv profiles are identified by the hour of day over which they were averaged (12 = 1200; 25 = 0100, local time) [1].
Mentions: The role of sound in the life of elephants can be traced back to their evolution in forests. Sight in a forest is of little value, and the distance over which smell can be used is limited by low levels of wind speed, as indicated in Figure 1, and by dispersion [1].

Bottom Line: Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10(-3) Pa.Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing.Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA. mikek@ece.cornell.edu.

ABSTRACT
Theoretical calculations suggest that sounds produced by thunderstorms and detected by a system similar to the International Monitoring System (IMS) for the detection of nuclear explosions at distances ≥100 km, are at sound pressure levels equal to or greater than 6 × 10(-3) Pa. Such sound pressure levels are well within the range of elephant hearing. Frequencies carrying these sounds might allow for interaural time delays such that adult elephants could not only hear but could also locate the source of these sounds. Determining whether it is possible for elephants to hear and locate thunderstorms contributes to the question of whether elephant movements are triggered or influenced by these abiotic sounds.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus