Limits...
The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

Koppel K, Gibson M, Alavi S, Aldrich G - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles.Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan.Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sensory Analysis Center, Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA. kadri@ksu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Partial Least Squares Regression Factors 1 and 2. Suffixes: ap – appearance; ar – aroma; fl – flavor; at – aftertaste.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494385&req=5

animals-04-00254-f002: Partial Least Squares Regression Factors 1 and 2. Suffixes: ap – appearance; ar – aroma; fl – flavor; at – aftertaste.

Mentions: Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) maps (Figure 2 and Figure 3) show associations between sensory flavor attributes and with the instrumental volatile composition. From the first four partial least squares factors 85% volatile compound variation explained 72% of descriptive sensory analysis data variation. Koppel et al. found lower percentages of data explained between descriptive sensory aroma attributes and volatile compounds data [13]. Better explanation of data variation may be caused by less variation within the dataset as well as using sensory flavor information instead of aromatics information to detect associations with instrumental volatile compounds concentration. This approach was considered more suitable as for both flavor evaluation and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) the sample is prepared in a similar manner: moisture is added first and next the sample is warmed to enhance aromatics extraction.


The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

Koppel K, Gibson M, Alavi S, Aldrich G - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Partial Least Squares Regression Factors 1 and 2. Suffixes: ap – appearance; ar – aroma; fl – flavor; at – aftertaste.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494385&req=5

animals-04-00254-f002: Partial Least Squares Regression Factors 1 and 2. Suffixes: ap – appearance; ar – aroma; fl – flavor; at – aftertaste.
Mentions: Partial Least Squares Regression (PLS-R) maps (Figure 2 and Figure 3) show associations between sensory flavor attributes and with the instrumental volatile composition. From the first four partial least squares factors 85% volatile compound variation explained 72% of descriptive sensory analysis data variation. Koppel et al. found lower percentages of data explained between descriptive sensory aroma attributes and volatile compounds data [13]. Better explanation of data variation may be caused by less variation within the dataset as well as using sensory flavor information instead of aromatics information to detect associations with instrumental volatile compounds concentration. This approach was considered more suitable as for both flavor evaluation and solid phase micro extraction (SPME) the sample is prepared in a similar manner: moisture is added first and next the sample is warmed to enhance aromatics extraction.

Bottom Line: High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles.Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan.Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sensory Analysis Center, Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA. kadri@ksu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus