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The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

Koppel K, Gibson M, Alavi S, Aldrich G - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles.Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan.Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sensory Analysis Center, Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA. kadri@ksu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

No MeSH data available.


Schematic showing pilot scale single screw extruder profile and barrel temperature setting. The screw element codes a:b:x imply the following: a = 1 (full pitch screw), 0.5 (half pitch screw), SL (steam lock element); b = element length (mm); x = SF (single flighted screw), DF (double flighted screw), SM (small diameter steam lock), M (medium diameter steam lock), L (large diameter steam lock). The last screw element is a conical shaped segment.
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animals-04-00254-f001: Schematic showing pilot scale single screw extruder profile and barrel temperature setting. The screw element codes a:b:x imply the following: a = 1 (full pitch screw), 0.5 (half pitch screw), SL (steam lock element); b = element length (mm); x = SF (single flighted screw), DF (double flighted screw), SM (small diameter steam lock), M (medium diameter steam lock), L (large diameter steam lock). The last screw element is a conical shaped segment.

Mentions: Diets were processed on a single screw extruder (X-20, Wenger Manufacturing, Sabetha, KS, USA) with the screw profile displayed in Figure 1. Processing conditions, e.g., extruder screw RPM (350 425 RPM as Medium, and 500 RPM) and preconditioner steam input (8 kg/h, 12 kg/h, and 16 kg/h as High) were varied to achieve different thermal to mechanical ratios. The specific ratios used were 500 RPM and 8 kg/h steam input for Low thermal to mechanical energy ratio, 425 RPM and 12 kg/h steam input for Medium, and 350 RPM and 16 kg/h steam input for High thermal to mechanical energy ratios.


The Effects of Cooking Process and Meat Inclusion on Pet Food Flavor and Texture Characteristics.

Koppel K, Gibson M, Alavi S, Aldrich G - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Schematic showing pilot scale single screw extruder profile and barrel temperature setting. The screw element codes a:b:x imply the following: a = 1 (full pitch screw), 0.5 (half pitch screw), SL (steam lock element); b = element length (mm); x = SF (single flighted screw), DF (double flighted screw), SM (small diameter steam lock), M (medium diameter steam lock), L (large diameter steam lock). The last screw element is a conical shaped segment.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494385&req=5

animals-04-00254-f001: Schematic showing pilot scale single screw extruder profile and barrel temperature setting. The screw element codes a:b:x imply the following: a = 1 (full pitch screw), 0.5 (half pitch screw), SL (steam lock element); b = element length (mm); x = SF (single flighted screw), DF (double flighted screw), SM (small diameter steam lock), M (medium diameter steam lock), L (large diameter steam lock). The last screw element is a conical shaped segment.
Mentions: Diets were processed on a single screw extruder (X-20, Wenger Manufacturing, Sabetha, KS, USA) with the screw profile displayed in Figure 1. Processing conditions, e.g., extruder screw RPM (350 425 RPM as Medium, and 500 RPM) and preconditioner steam input (8 kg/h, 12 kg/h, and 16 kg/h as High) were varied to achieve different thermal to mechanical ratios. The specific ratios used were 500 RPM and 8 kg/h steam input for Low thermal to mechanical energy ratio, 425 RPM and 12 kg/h steam input for Medium, and 350 RPM and 16 kg/h steam input for High thermal to mechanical energy ratios.

Bottom Line: High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles.Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan.Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Sensory Analysis Center, Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, 1310 Research Park Drive, Manhattan, KS 66502, USA. kadri@ksu.edu.

ABSTRACT
The pet food industry is an important portion of the food and feed industries in the US. The objectives of this study were (1) to determine cooking method (baking or extrusion), meat inclusion (0 or 20%), and extrusion thermal to mechanical energy ratios (low, medium, and high) effects on sensory and volatile properties of pet foods, and (2) to determine associations among sensory and volatile characteristics of baked and extruded pet foods. Descriptive sensory analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze the pet food samples. It was found that baked samples were lighter in color (2.0-2.6 baked vs. 3.5-4.3 extruded, color intensity scale 0-15), and had lower levels of attributes that indicated rancidity (i.e., fishy flavor; 0.3-0.6 baked, 0.6-1.5 extruded, scale 0-15), whereas extruded pet foods were more cohesive in mass, more friable, hard, and crisp, but less powdery than baked samples. Fresh meat inclusion tended to decrease bitterness and increase fishy flavor and cohesiveness of pet foods. High thermal to mechanical energy ratio during extrusion resulted in less musty and more porous kibbles. The main volatile compounds included aldehydes, such as hexanal and heptanal, ketones, and alcohols. Extruded samples did not contain methylpyrazine, while baked samples did not contain 2-butyl furan. Future studies should consider evaluating the relationship between sensory results and animal palatability for these types of foods.

No MeSH data available.