Limits...
Unusual Animal Behavior Preceding the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, Japan: A Way to Predict the Approach of Large Earthquakes.

Yamauchi H, Uchiyama H, Ohtani N, Ohta M - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species.Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ.However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Azabu University Graduate School of Veterinary Science, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan. hiroyuki.yamauchi19@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Unusual animal behaviors (UABs) have been observed before large earthquakes (EQs), however, their mechanisms are unclear. While information on UABs has been gathered after many EQs, few studies have focused on the ratio of emerged UABs or specific behaviors prior to EQs. On 11 March 2011, an EQ (Mw 9.0) occurred in Japan, which took about twenty thousand lives together with missing and killed persons. We surveyed UABs of pets preceding this EQ using a questionnaire. Additionally, we explored whether dairy cow milk yields varied before this EQ in particular locations. In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species. Most UABs occurred within one day of the EQ. The UABs showed a precursory relationship with epicentral distance. Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ. However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases. Since both the pets' behavior and the dairy cows' milk yields were affected prior to the EQ, with careful observation they could contribute to EQ predictions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Changes in the dairy cow milk yields (mean ± S.E.) modified by days after calving and environmental factors at three institutes in Japan from 1 January 2011, to 11 March 2011. Darkened triangle (▼) indicates the occurrence of the earthquake. A double asterisks denote a significant difference at P < 0.001 compared with milk yields from 1 January 2011, to 31 January 2011, at the same institute.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494383&req=5

animals-04-00131-f003: Changes in the dairy cow milk yields (mean ± S.E.) modified by days after calving and environmental factors at three institutes in Japan from 1 January 2011, to 11 March 2011. Darkened triangle (▼) indicates the occurrence of the earthquake. A double asterisks denote a significant difference at P < 0.001 compared with milk yields from 1 January 2011, to 31 January 2011, at the same institute.

Mentions: Milk yields analyzed for this period showed a normal distribution. Standard deviations for milk yields at the three institutes from 1 January 2011, to 11 March 2011, were 0.621 at Ibaraki, 0.639 at Kanagawa and 0.601 at Shizuoka. Milk yields varied among the days (repeated measures two-way ANOVA, F = 1.730, P = 0.003), although the main effect among the facilities was not significant (Figure 3). An interaction between the days and the milking facilities was found (F = 1.778, P < 0.001). The result of a repeated measures one-way ANOVA analyzing the difference between milk yield during the basal period and during each day prior to the EQ at each institute revealed that only the Ibaraki Prefecture facility varied among the days (F = 8.875, P < 0.001). Post hoc tests indicated that milk yields on 10 February 2011 (P < 0.001), 5 March 2011 (P < 0.001), 6 March 2011 (P < 0.001), 7 March 2011 (P < 0.001), and 8 March 2011 (P = 0.001), were significantly decreased in comparison with the basal period in Ibaraki (Figure 3).


Unusual Animal Behavior Preceding the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, Japan: A Way to Predict the Approach of Large Earthquakes.

Yamauchi H, Uchiyama H, Ohtani N, Ohta M - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Changes in the dairy cow milk yields (mean ± S.E.) modified by days after calving and environmental factors at three institutes in Japan from 1 January 2011, to 11 March 2011. Darkened triangle (▼) indicates the occurrence of the earthquake. A double asterisks denote a significant difference at P < 0.001 compared with milk yields from 1 January 2011, to 31 January 2011, at the same institute.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494383&req=5

animals-04-00131-f003: Changes in the dairy cow milk yields (mean ± S.E.) modified by days after calving and environmental factors at three institutes in Japan from 1 January 2011, to 11 March 2011. Darkened triangle (▼) indicates the occurrence of the earthquake. A double asterisks denote a significant difference at P < 0.001 compared with milk yields from 1 January 2011, to 31 January 2011, at the same institute.
Mentions: Milk yields analyzed for this period showed a normal distribution. Standard deviations for milk yields at the three institutes from 1 January 2011, to 11 March 2011, were 0.621 at Ibaraki, 0.639 at Kanagawa and 0.601 at Shizuoka. Milk yields varied among the days (repeated measures two-way ANOVA, F = 1.730, P = 0.003), although the main effect among the facilities was not significant (Figure 3). An interaction between the days and the milking facilities was found (F = 1.778, P < 0.001). The result of a repeated measures one-way ANOVA analyzing the difference between milk yield during the basal period and during each day prior to the EQ at each institute revealed that only the Ibaraki Prefecture facility varied among the days (F = 8.875, P < 0.001). Post hoc tests indicated that milk yields on 10 February 2011 (P < 0.001), 5 March 2011 (P < 0.001), 6 March 2011 (P < 0.001), 7 March 2011 (P < 0.001), and 8 March 2011 (P = 0.001), were significantly decreased in comparison with the basal period in Ibaraki (Figure 3).

Bottom Line: In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species.Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ.However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Azabu University Graduate School of Veterinary Science, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan. hiroyuki.yamauchi19@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Unusual animal behaviors (UABs) have been observed before large earthquakes (EQs), however, their mechanisms are unclear. While information on UABs has been gathered after many EQs, few studies have focused on the ratio of emerged UABs or specific behaviors prior to EQs. On 11 March 2011, an EQ (Mw 9.0) occurred in Japan, which took about twenty thousand lives together with missing and killed persons. We surveyed UABs of pets preceding this EQ using a questionnaire. Additionally, we explored whether dairy cow milk yields varied before this EQ in particular locations. In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species. Most UABs occurred within one day of the EQ. The UABs showed a precursory relationship with epicentral distance. Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ. However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases. Since both the pets' behavior and the dairy cows' milk yields were affected prior to the EQ, with careful observation they could contribute to EQ predictions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus