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Unusual Animal Behavior Preceding the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, Japan: A Way to Predict the Approach of Large Earthquakes.

Yamauchi H, Uchiyama H, Ohtani N, Ohta M - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species.Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ.However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Azabu University Graduate School of Veterinary Science, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan. hiroyuki.yamauchi19@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Unusual animal behaviors (UABs) have been observed before large earthquakes (EQs), however, their mechanisms are unclear. While information on UABs has been gathered after many EQs, few studies have focused on the ratio of emerged UABs or specific behaviors prior to EQs. On 11 March 2011, an EQ (Mw 9.0) occurred in Japan, which took about twenty thousand lives together with missing and killed persons. We surveyed UABs of pets preceding this EQ using a questionnaire. Additionally, we explored whether dairy cow milk yields varied before this EQ in particular locations. In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species. Most UABs occurred within one day of the EQ. The UABs showed a precursory relationship with epicentral distance. Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ. However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases. Since both the pets' behavior and the dairy cows' milk yields were affected prior to the EQ, with careful observation they could contribute to EQ predictions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Numbers of unusual animal behaviors (UABs) of dogs in each behavioral category and the time of occurrence prior to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan; (b) Relative ratio normalized as % of the total; (c) Numbers of unusual animal behaviors (UABs) of cats in each behavioral category and the time of occurrence prior to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan; (d) Relative ratio normalized as % of the total.
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animals-04-00131-f002: (a) Numbers of unusual animal behaviors (UABs) of dogs in each behavioral category and the time of occurrence prior to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan; (b) Relative ratio normalized as % of the total; (c) Numbers of unusual animal behaviors (UABs) of cats in each behavioral category and the time of occurrence prior to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan; (d) Relative ratio normalized as % of the total.

Mentions: A total of 236 (18.7%) dog owners and 115 (16.4%) cat owners observed UABs of their pets (Figure 2). The numbers of dog and cat owners that observed a single UAB were 55 and 39, respectively, and the numbers that observed more than one UAB were 181 and 76, respectively. In observed UABs, restless behavior was the most common, whereas diarrhea, vomited, no appetite, and aggressive behavior occurred only occasionally in dogs and cats. The timing of the UABs was different between dogs and cats. In dogs, 60.0% of the UABs occurred “from a few seconds to minutes” before the EQ. The distribution of the remaining UABs was as follows: 16.7% were “from 1 to a few hours”, 7.1% were “1 day”, 7.3% were “from 2 to 3 days”, 2.6% were “from 4 to 5 days”, and 6.3% were “6 or more days” before the EQ. In cats 44.6% of the UABs occurred “from a few seconds to minutes” and 30.4% occurred “from 1 to a few hours” before the EQ. The distribution of the remaining UABs was as follows: 9.0% were “1 day”, 11.5% were “from 2 to 3 days”, 1.6% were “from 4 to 5 days”, and 2.9% were “6 or more days” before the EQ.


Unusual Animal Behavior Preceding the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku, Japan: A Way to Predict the Approach of Large Earthquakes.

Yamauchi H, Uchiyama H, Ohtani N, Ohta M - Animals (Basel) (2014)

(a) Numbers of unusual animal behaviors (UABs) of dogs in each behavioral category and the time of occurrence prior to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan; (b) Relative ratio normalized as % of the total; (c) Numbers of unusual animal behaviors (UABs) of cats in each behavioral category and the time of occurrence prior to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan; (d) Relative ratio normalized as % of the total.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494383&req=5

animals-04-00131-f002: (a) Numbers of unusual animal behaviors (UABs) of dogs in each behavioral category and the time of occurrence prior to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan; (b) Relative ratio normalized as % of the total; (c) Numbers of unusual animal behaviors (UABs) of cats in each behavioral category and the time of occurrence prior to the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan; (d) Relative ratio normalized as % of the total.
Mentions: A total of 236 (18.7%) dog owners and 115 (16.4%) cat owners observed UABs of their pets (Figure 2). The numbers of dog and cat owners that observed a single UAB were 55 and 39, respectively, and the numbers that observed more than one UAB were 181 and 76, respectively. In observed UABs, restless behavior was the most common, whereas diarrhea, vomited, no appetite, and aggressive behavior occurred only occasionally in dogs and cats. The timing of the UABs was different between dogs and cats. In dogs, 60.0% of the UABs occurred “from a few seconds to minutes” before the EQ. The distribution of the remaining UABs was as follows: 16.7% were “from 1 to a few hours”, 7.1% were “1 day”, 7.3% were “from 2 to 3 days”, 2.6% were “from 4 to 5 days”, and 6.3% were “6 or more days” before the EQ. In cats 44.6% of the UABs occurred “from a few seconds to minutes” and 30.4% occurred “from 1 to a few hours” before the EQ. The distribution of the remaining UABs was as follows: 9.0% were “1 day”, 11.5% were “from 2 to 3 days”, 1.6% were “from 4 to 5 days”, and 2.9% were “6 or more days” before the EQ.

Bottom Line: In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species.Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ.However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science and Biotechnology, Azabu University Graduate School of Veterinary Science, 1-17-71 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 252-5201, Japan. hiroyuki.yamauchi19@gmail.com.

ABSTRACT
Unusual animal behaviors (UABs) have been observed before large earthquakes (EQs), however, their mechanisms are unclear. While information on UABs has been gathered after many EQs, few studies have focused on the ratio of emerged UABs or specific behaviors prior to EQs. On 11 March 2011, an EQ (Mw 9.0) occurred in Japan, which took about twenty thousand lives together with missing and killed persons. We surveyed UABs of pets preceding this EQ using a questionnaire. Additionally, we explored whether dairy cow milk yields varied before this EQ in particular locations. In the results, 236 of 1,259 dog owners and 115 of 703 cat owners observed UABs in their pets, with restless behavior being the most prominent change in both species. Most UABs occurred within one day of the EQ. The UABs showed a precursory relationship with epicentral distance. Interestingly, cow milk yields in a milking facility within 340 km of the epicenter decreased significantly about one week before the EQ. However, cows in facilities farther away showed no significant decreases. Since both the pets' behavior and the dairy cows' milk yields were affected prior to the EQ, with careful observation they could contribute to EQ predictions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus