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Establishing Sprinkling Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm and Hot Weather.

Kephart R, Johnson A, Sapkota A, Stalder K, McGlone J - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Experiment 2 used 82 loads in WARM- and 54 loads in HOT weather to determine the sprinkling effects on transport losses (non-ambulatory, dead, and total transport losses).Experiment 2 found that, in WARM and HOT weather, sprinkling did not affect non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p ≥ 0.18).Although the current study did not find any observed sprinkling effects for pig measures or transport losses it is extremely important to note that the inference space of this study is relatively small, so further studies should be conducted to see if these results are applicable to other geographical regions and seasons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. rkdavis@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted July of 2012 in Iowa, in WARM (<26.7 °C) and HOT (≥26.7 °C) weather. Four sprinkling methods were compared, with one treatment being randomly assigned to each load: control- no sprinkling (not applied in HOT weather), pigs only, bedding only, or pigs and bedding. Experiment 1 used 51 loads in WARM- and 86 loads in HOT weather to determine sprinkling effects on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs). Experiment 2 used 82 loads in WARM- and 54 loads in HOT weather to determine the sprinkling effects on transport losses (non-ambulatory, dead, and total transport losses). Experiment 1 found that, in WARM weather, there were no differences between sprinkling treatments for surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p ≥ 0.18). However, stress signs were 2% greater when sprinkling pigs- or bedding only- compared to control (p = 0.03). Experiment 2 found that, in WARM and HOT weather, sprinkling did not affect non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p ≥ 0.18). Although the current study did not find any observed sprinkling effects for pig measures or transport losses it is extremely important to note that the inference space of this study is relatively small, so further studies should be conducted to see if these results are applicable to other geographical regions and seasons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experiment 1. Effects of THI at unloading on stress signs of market weight pigs at unloading in HOT weather (≥26.7 °C; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.31).
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animals-04-00164-f003: Experiment 1. Effects of THI at unloading on stress signs of market weight pigs at unloading in HOT weather (≥26.7 °C; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.31).

Mentions: However, it was observed in HOT weather that as THI increased from ~20 to 24, stress signs at unloading increased ~27% (p < 0.01, Figure 3). Increased stress signs, such as open mouth breathing and red blotchy skin, could be explained by the pig’s natural heat coping mechanisms. Although surface temperature ranges seen in this study are not reflective of severely heat stressed pigs this may simply mean that their physiological mechanisms were acting effectively. It is difficult to speculate as to why an increase in THI would increase slips and falls. It may be that pigs are motivated to exit the trailer quicker and hence lose their footing more because of the heat in the trailer. However, this theory would need to be further evaluated in controlled heat and behavioral studies.


Establishing Sprinkling Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm and Hot Weather.

Kephart R, Johnson A, Sapkota A, Stalder K, McGlone J - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Experiment 1. Effects of THI at unloading on stress signs of market weight pigs at unloading in HOT weather (≥26.7 °C; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.31).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494380&req=5

animals-04-00164-f003: Experiment 1. Effects of THI at unloading on stress signs of market weight pigs at unloading in HOT weather (≥26.7 °C; p < 0.01, R2 = 0.31).
Mentions: However, it was observed in HOT weather that as THI increased from ~20 to 24, stress signs at unloading increased ~27% (p < 0.01, Figure 3). Increased stress signs, such as open mouth breathing and red blotchy skin, could be explained by the pig’s natural heat coping mechanisms. Although surface temperature ranges seen in this study are not reflective of severely heat stressed pigs this may simply mean that their physiological mechanisms were acting effectively. It is difficult to speculate as to why an increase in THI would increase slips and falls. It may be that pigs are motivated to exit the trailer quicker and hence lose their footing more because of the heat in the trailer. However, this theory would need to be further evaluated in controlled heat and behavioral studies.

Bottom Line: Experiment 2 used 82 loads in WARM- and 54 loads in HOT weather to determine the sprinkling effects on transport losses (non-ambulatory, dead, and total transport losses).Experiment 2 found that, in WARM and HOT weather, sprinkling did not affect non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p ≥ 0.18).Although the current study did not find any observed sprinkling effects for pig measures or transport losses it is extremely important to note that the inference space of this study is relatively small, so further studies should be conducted to see if these results are applicable to other geographical regions and seasons.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. rkdavis@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted July of 2012 in Iowa, in WARM (<26.7 °C) and HOT (≥26.7 °C) weather. Four sprinkling methods were compared, with one treatment being randomly assigned to each load: control- no sprinkling (not applied in HOT weather), pigs only, bedding only, or pigs and bedding. Experiment 1 used 51 loads in WARM- and 86 loads in HOT weather to determine sprinkling effects on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs). Experiment 2 used 82 loads in WARM- and 54 loads in HOT weather to determine the sprinkling effects on transport losses (non-ambulatory, dead, and total transport losses). Experiment 1 found that, in WARM weather, there were no differences between sprinkling treatments for surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p ≥ 0.18). However, stress signs were 2% greater when sprinkling pigs- or bedding only- compared to control (p = 0.03). Experiment 2 found that, in WARM and HOT weather, sprinkling did not affect non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p ≥ 0.18). Although the current study did not find any observed sprinkling effects for pig measures or transport losses it is extremely important to note that the inference space of this study is relatively small, so further studies should be conducted to see if these results are applicable to other geographical regions and seasons.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus