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Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study.

Fidani C, Freund F, Grant R - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1.Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire.Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Osservatorio Sismico "Andrea Bina", Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows' behavior-local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes-is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Schematic representation of the 2-step air ionization that has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments during stressing of rocks [16].
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animals-04-00292-f005: Schematic representation of the 2-step air ionization that has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments during stressing of rocks [16].

Mentions: Indeed, tiny, rapid-fire 1.5 millisecond light flashes originating at the edges and corners of blocks of rock have been recorded in laboratory experiments as schematically shown in Figure 5 [16], generating bursts of free electrons and positive ions in roughly equal numbers. There seems to be no study cited in the literature that looked at the response to animals to an increase in the total air ion content, both positive and negative in equal proportion, compared to selectively positive air ionization. Animals might be sensitive to an overall increase in air ion concentrations but probably less so than to increases in selective positive air ionization. Furthermore, reaching the surface the charge cloud causes dielectric breakdown at the air-rock interface, i.e., corona discharges, accompanied by the emission of light and high frequency electromagnetic radiation [16]. The light emissions observed at Colfiorito could have originated for the same physical process. Therefore this paper provides a small piece of evidence for Freund’s [55] unified theory of earthquake precursors.


Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study.

Fidani C, Freund F, Grant R - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Schematic representation of the 2-step air ionization that has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments during stressing of rocks [16].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494377&req=5

animals-04-00292-f005: Schematic representation of the 2-step air ionization that has been demonstrated in laboratory experiments during stressing of rocks [16].
Mentions: Indeed, tiny, rapid-fire 1.5 millisecond light flashes originating at the edges and corners of blocks of rock have been recorded in laboratory experiments as schematically shown in Figure 5 [16], generating bursts of free electrons and positive ions in roughly equal numbers. There seems to be no study cited in the literature that looked at the response to animals to an increase in the total air ion content, both positive and negative in equal proportion, compared to selectively positive air ionization. Animals might be sensitive to an overall increase in air ion concentrations but probably less so than to increases in selective positive air ionization. Furthermore, reaching the surface the charge cloud causes dielectric breakdown at the air-rock interface, i.e., corona discharges, accompanied by the emission of light and high frequency electromagnetic radiation [16]. The light emissions observed at Colfiorito could have originated for the same physical process. Therefore this paper provides a small piece of evidence for Freund’s [55] unified theory of earthquake precursors.

Bottom Line: The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1.Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire.Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Osservatorio Sismico "Andrea Bina", Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows' behavior-local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes-is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus