Limits...
Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study.

Fidani C, Freund F, Grant R - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1.Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire.Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Osservatorio Sismico "Andrea Bina", Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows' behavior-local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes-is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Laboratory set-up to measure surface potential (a) and air ionization (b) during stressing a block of rock [16].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494377&req=5

animals-04-00292-f004: Laboratory set-up to measure surface potential (a) and air ionization (b) during stressing a block of rock [16].

Mentions: Using an experimental set-up as depicted in Figure 4a it has been shown that, when a block of rock is mechanically stressed at one end, a positive surface potential develops at the other end that can be recorded by a voltmeter attached to a metal plate held 2 mm above the rock surface. Upon stressing the rock the surface potential rapidly increases to values around 2–3 V. Upon further loading of the end of the rock, the air in contact with the rock surface at the far end becomes positively ionized as indicated in Figure 4b [16]. This can be recorded by replacing the voltmeter in Figure 4a with an ammeter and insert a battery into the circuit so that the metal plate, held 2 mm above the rock surface, now acts as an ion collector. The number of positive airborne ions generated on the surface of a chunk of bare rock at moderate loads, typically less than 50% of the fracture strength, can reach values on the order of 106–107 cm–2·sec–1. Though we don’t know yet how these laboratory ionization production rates (in number of ions produced per unit surface) translate into actual air ion concentrations (number of ions per unit volume) in the field, data from Japan [51] indicate that positive air ion concentrations at ground level can be 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than the “fair weather” ion content, typically 200 cm−3, which is primarily due to cosmic rays and radon decay products [52]. Field data recorded by air ionization sensors collocated with the ULF search coil magnetometers of the QuakeFinder stations along the San Andreas Fault system in California and along the subduction zone in southern Peru have recorded massive pre-earthquake air ionization, often lasting for hours, producing predominantly or exclusively positive air ions [53,54].


Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study.

Fidani C, Freund F, Grant R - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Laboratory set-up to measure surface potential (a) and air ionization (b) during stressing a block of rock [16].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494377&req=5

animals-04-00292-f004: Laboratory set-up to measure surface potential (a) and air ionization (b) during stressing a block of rock [16].
Mentions: Using an experimental set-up as depicted in Figure 4a it has been shown that, when a block of rock is mechanically stressed at one end, a positive surface potential develops at the other end that can be recorded by a voltmeter attached to a metal plate held 2 mm above the rock surface. Upon stressing the rock the surface potential rapidly increases to values around 2–3 V. Upon further loading of the end of the rock, the air in contact with the rock surface at the far end becomes positively ionized as indicated in Figure 4b [16]. This can be recorded by replacing the voltmeter in Figure 4a with an ammeter and insert a battery into the circuit so that the metal plate, held 2 mm above the rock surface, now acts as an ion collector. The number of positive airborne ions generated on the surface of a chunk of bare rock at moderate loads, typically less than 50% of the fracture strength, can reach values on the order of 106–107 cm–2·sec–1. Though we don’t know yet how these laboratory ionization production rates (in number of ions produced per unit surface) translate into actual air ion concentrations (number of ions per unit volume) in the field, data from Japan [51] indicate that positive air ion concentrations at ground level can be 2–3 orders of magnitude higher than the “fair weather” ion content, typically 200 cm−3, which is primarily due to cosmic rays and radon decay products [52]. Field data recorded by air ionization sensors collocated with the ULF search coil magnetometers of the QuakeFinder stations along the San Andreas Fault system in California and along the subduction zone in southern Peru have recorded massive pre-earthquake air ionization, often lasting for hours, producing predominantly or exclusively positive air ions [53,54].

Bottom Line: The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1.Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire.Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Osservatorio Sismico "Andrea Bina", Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows' behavior-local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes-is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus