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Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study.

Fidani C, Freund F, Grant R - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1.Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire.Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Osservatorio Sismico "Andrea Bina", Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows' behavior-local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes-is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Rain data from the five meteorological stations. (a) rain data after September 22 were lost from Serravalle as it was strongly damaged by the quake; minimum and maximum daily temperatures recorded at Nocera Umbra, in red, and at Foligno, in blue, meteorological stations (b) temperature data after September 24 were lost from Nocera Umbra as it was strongly damaged by the quake; the main shock time is indicated by a black vertical line.
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animals-04-00292-f003: Rain data from the five meteorological stations. (a) rain data after September 22 were lost from Serravalle as it was strongly damaged by the quake; minimum and maximum daily temperatures recorded at Nocera Umbra, in red, and at Foligno, in blue, meteorological stations (b) temperature data after September 24 were lost from Nocera Umbra as it was strongly damaged by the quake; the main shock time is indicated by a black vertical line.

Mentions: Meteorological data were retrieved from the Hydrogeological Annals of the Marche Region [37] and Umbria Region [38], from five stations around Colfiorito, (blue circles in Figure 1), and data were recorded with daily samples, (Figure 3a). Temperatures were reported in Figure 3b from the two stations closest to the epicentre. Gas emission data were retrieved from publications [39,40,41,42] and were also reported by the people filling in the questionnaires [31].


Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study.

Fidani C, Freund F, Grant R - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Rain data from the five meteorological stations. (a) rain data after September 22 were lost from Serravalle as it was strongly damaged by the quake; minimum and maximum daily temperatures recorded at Nocera Umbra, in red, and at Foligno, in blue, meteorological stations (b) temperature data after September 24 were lost from Nocera Umbra as it was strongly damaged by the quake; the main shock time is indicated by a black vertical line.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494377&req=5

animals-04-00292-f003: Rain data from the five meteorological stations. (a) rain data after September 22 were lost from Serravalle as it was strongly damaged by the quake; minimum and maximum daily temperatures recorded at Nocera Umbra, in red, and at Foligno, in blue, meteorological stations (b) temperature data after September 24 were lost from Nocera Umbra as it was strongly damaged by the quake; the main shock time is indicated by a black vertical line.
Mentions: Meteorological data were retrieved from the Hydrogeological Annals of the Marche Region [37] and Umbria Region [38], from five stations around Colfiorito, (blue circles in Figure 1), and data were recorded with daily samples, (Figure 3a). Temperatures were reported in Figure 3b from the two stations closest to the epicentre. Gas emission data were retrieved from publications [39,40,41,42] and were also reported by the people filling in the questionnaires [31].

Bottom Line: The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1.Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire.Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Osservatorio Sismico "Andrea Bina", Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows' behavior-local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes-is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus