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Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study.

Fidani C, Freund F, Grant R - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1.Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire.Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Osservatorio Sismico "Andrea Bina", Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows' behavior-local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes-is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Colfiorito Basin. The red arrows in the left-hand box indicate cow movements, while red circles indicate the stronger shocks and blue circles indicate meteorological stations at Serravalle (1), Gelagna Alta (2), Pié del Sasso (3) and Bagnara (4) (the Nocera Umbra station is outside of the map to the west near Bagnara). A section of the Basin in the left-hand box is shown in red, it is represented in the right-hand box with the positions of the main shock and aftershocks along the normal fault plane in red; Mount Maggio is behind Mount Prefoglio, after Barchi [24].
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animals-04-00292-f001: Colfiorito Basin. The red arrows in the left-hand box indicate cow movements, while red circles indicate the stronger shocks and blue circles indicate meteorological stations at Serravalle (1), Gelagna Alta (2), Pié del Sasso (3) and Bagnara (4) (the Nocera Umbra station is outside of the map to the west near Bagnara). A section of the Basin in the left-hand box is shown in red, it is represented in the right-hand box with the positions of the main shock and aftershocks along the normal fault plane in red; Mount Maggio is behind Mount Prefoglio, after Barchi [24].

Mentions: The Colfiorito area is a closed extensional basin system located on the Apennines watershed and surrounded by valleys that are deeply incised into the Mesozoic–Cenozoic bedrock (Figure 1). The basin floor is at an elevation of 800 m whereas the level of river incision in nearby valleys rapidly decreases to 400 m within a few kilometres of the basin. Lacustrine and alluvial deposits containing remains of Lower Pleistocene mammal fauna [17] are exposed for 100 m in thickness in the central and southern parts of the basin. Surface geological data and seismic reflection profiles have clearly pointed out that the area of Colfiorito is structurally dominated by N–S and NNW–SSE trending macro-anticlines. Colfiorito plain is bounded to the NE by an active normal fault system [18] that ruptured during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence [19]. Despite the different interpretations given to the surface ruptures observed after the main shocks, the fault geometry revealed by seismological, geodetic, and field data [20,21] is consistent with the longer-term Quaternary evolution of the area. In particular, radar interferometry and GPS data showed several tens of centimetres of seismic subsidence in the hangingwall of the fault system bounding the basin [22], and surface ruptures of a few cm in amplitude were found after the earthquake along previously-mapped fault scarps at the foot of mountain fronts bounding the Quaternary basin [23].


Cows Come Down from the Mountains before the (Mw = 6.1) Earthquake Colfiorito in September 1997; A Single Case Study.

Fidani C, Freund F, Grant R - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Colfiorito Basin. The red arrows in the left-hand box indicate cow movements, while red circles indicate the stronger shocks and blue circles indicate meteorological stations at Serravalle (1), Gelagna Alta (2), Pié del Sasso (3) and Bagnara (4) (the Nocera Umbra station is outside of the map to the west near Bagnara). A section of the Basin in the left-hand box is shown in red, it is represented in the right-hand box with the positions of the main shock and aftershocks along the normal fault plane in red; Mount Maggio is behind Mount Prefoglio, after Barchi [24].
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494377&req=5

animals-04-00292-f001: Colfiorito Basin. The red arrows in the left-hand box indicate cow movements, while red circles indicate the stronger shocks and blue circles indicate meteorological stations at Serravalle (1), Gelagna Alta (2), Pié del Sasso (3) and Bagnara (4) (the Nocera Umbra station is outside of the map to the west near Bagnara). A section of the Basin in the left-hand box is shown in red, it is represented in the right-hand box with the positions of the main shock and aftershocks along the normal fault plane in red; Mount Maggio is behind Mount Prefoglio, after Barchi [24].
Mentions: The Colfiorito area is a closed extensional basin system located on the Apennines watershed and surrounded by valleys that are deeply incised into the Mesozoic–Cenozoic bedrock (Figure 1). The basin floor is at an elevation of 800 m whereas the level of river incision in nearby valleys rapidly decreases to 400 m within a few kilometres of the basin. Lacustrine and alluvial deposits containing remains of Lower Pleistocene mammal fauna [17] are exposed for 100 m in thickness in the central and southern parts of the basin. Surface geological data and seismic reflection profiles have clearly pointed out that the area of Colfiorito is structurally dominated by N–S and NNW–SSE trending macro-anticlines. Colfiorito plain is bounded to the NE by an active normal fault system [18] that ruptured during the 1997 Umbria-Marche earthquake sequence [19]. Despite the different interpretations given to the surface ruptures observed after the main shocks, the fault geometry revealed by seismological, geodetic, and field data [20,21] is consistent with the longer-term Quaternary evolution of the area. In particular, radar interferometry and GPS data showed several tens of centimetres of seismic subsidence in the hangingwall of the fault system bounding the basin [22], and surface ruptures of a few cm in amplitude were found after the earthquake along previously-mapped fault scarps at the foot of mountain fronts bounding the Quaternary basin [23].

Bottom Line: The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1.Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire.Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Osservatorio Sismico "Andrea Bina", Borgo XX Giugno 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy. c.fidani@virgilio.it.

ABSTRACT
The September-October 1997 seismic sequence in the Umbria-Marche regions of Central Italy has been one of the stronger seismic events to occur in Italy over the last thirty years, with a maximum magnitude of Mw = 6.1. Over the last three years, a collection of evidence was carried out regarding non-seismic phenomena, by interviewing local residents using a questionnaire. One particular observation of anomalous animal behaviour, confirmed by many witnesses, concerned a herd of cows, which descended from a mountain close to the streets of a village near the epicentre, a few days before the main shock. Testimonies were collected using a specific questionnaire including data on earthquake lights, spring variations, human diseases, and irregular animal behaviour. The questionnaire was compiled after the L'Aquila earthquake in 2009, and was based upon past historical earthquake observations. A possible explanation for the cows' behavior-local air ionization caused by stress-activated positive holes-is discussed.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus