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Vaccine Adjuvants: from 1920 to 2015 and Beyond.

Pasquale AD, Preiss S, Silva FT, Garçon N - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit.Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable.Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GSK Vaccines, Avenue Fleming, 1300 Wavre, Belgium. alberta.di-pasquale@gsk.com.

ABSTRACT
The concept of stimulating the body's immune response is the basis underlying vaccination. Vaccines act by initiating the innate immune response and activating antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing a protective adaptive immune response to a pathogen antigen. Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of highly purified antigens that have insufficient immunostimulatory capabilities, and have been used in human vaccines for more than 90 years. While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit. Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable. Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects. Activated effectors (such as APCs) then move to draining lymph nodes where they direct the type, magnitude and quality of the adaptive immune response. Thus, the right match of antigens and adjuvants can potentiate downstream adaptive immune responses, enabling the development of new efficacious vaccines. Many infectious diseases of worldwide significance are not currently preventable by vaccination. Adjuvants are the most advanced new technology in the search for new vaccines against challenging pathogens and for vulnerable populations that respond poorly to traditional vaccines.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Challenges for modern vaccine development.
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vaccines-03-00320-f005: Challenges for modern vaccine development.

Mentions: Many of the infectious diseases that historically caused widespread morbidity and mortality in young children have been largely controlled by effective vaccines. Previously common diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, smallpox and measles were able to be prevented using relatively simple vaccines that stimulated robust antibody responses. Notable exceptions include malaria, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These pathogens have sophisticated mechanisms to evade human immune responses and are not able to be effectively prevented by antibodies alone. Hence despite the incredible success of vaccination as a public health intervention, infectious diseases remain the most common cause of death in children less than 5 years of age [27], while respiratory infections, diarrhea, HIV and tuberculosis all rank in the top ten leading causes of death in all age groups [28]. Thus, in the 21st century the technical challenges facing development of new vaccines are two-fold [4,29]: the first challenge relates to the characteristics of the pathogens themselves, and the second to the characteristics of the target populations (Figure 5).


Vaccine Adjuvants: from 1920 to 2015 and Beyond.

Pasquale AD, Preiss S, Silva FT, Garçon N - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Challenges for modern vaccine development.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494348&req=5

vaccines-03-00320-f005: Challenges for modern vaccine development.
Mentions: Many of the infectious diseases that historically caused widespread morbidity and mortality in young children have been largely controlled by effective vaccines. Previously common diseases such as diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, smallpox and measles were able to be prevented using relatively simple vaccines that stimulated robust antibody responses. Notable exceptions include malaria, tuberculosis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. These pathogens have sophisticated mechanisms to evade human immune responses and are not able to be effectively prevented by antibodies alone. Hence despite the incredible success of vaccination as a public health intervention, infectious diseases remain the most common cause of death in children less than 5 years of age [27], while respiratory infections, diarrhea, HIV and tuberculosis all rank in the top ten leading causes of death in all age groups [28]. Thus, in the 21st century the technical challenges facing development of new vaccines are two-fold [4,29]: the first challenge relates to the characteristics of the pathogens themselves, and the second to the characteristics of the target populations (Figure 5).

Bottom Line: While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit.Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable.Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: GSK Vaccines, Avenue Fleming, 1300 Wavre, Belgium. alberta.di-pasquale@gsk.com.

ABSTRACT
The concept of stimulating the body's immune response is the basis underlying vaccination. Vaccines act by initiating the innate immune response and activating antigen presenting cells (APCs), thereby inducing a protective adaptive immune response to a pathogen antigen. Adjuvants are substances added to vaccines to enhance the immunogenicity of highly purified antigens that have insufficient immunostimulatory capabilities, and have been used in human vaccines for more than 90 years. While early adjuvants (aluminum, oil-in-water emulsions) were used empirically, rapidly increasing knowledge on how the immune system interacts with pathogens means that there is increased understanding of the role of adjuvants and how the formulation of modern vaccines can be better tailored towards the desired clinical benefit. Continuing safety evaluation of licensed vaccines containing adjuvants/adjuvant systems suggests that their individual benefit-risk profile remains favorable. Adjuvants contribute to the initiation of the innate immune response induced by antigens; exemplified by inflammatory responses at the injection site, with mostly localized and short-lived effects. Activated effectors (such as APCs) then move to draining lymph nodes where they direct the type, magnitude and quality of the adaptive immune response. Thus, the right match of antigens and adjuvants can potentiate downstream adaptive immune responses, enabling the development of new efficacious vaccines. Many infectious diseases of worldwide significance are not currently preventable by vaccination. Adjuvants are the most advanced new technology in the search for new vaccines against challenging pathogens and for vulnerable populations that respond poorly to traditional vaccines.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus