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Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines.

Sridhar S, Brokstad KA, Cox RJ - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile.In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2-17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection.Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Saranya.sridhar@ndm.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2-17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Model of induction of immune responses after live attenuated influenza vaccination (LAIV). (1) Intranasal LAIV immunization; (2) Viral antigen is transported to the tonsils/adenoids by the Dendritic Cells (DCs); (3) Activation and proliferation of T and B cells in tonsils/adenoids with help from CD4+ T-cells. Affinity maturation of B cells; (4,5) Activated T and B cells home to site of infection and enter circulation. Plasma cells secrete antibody into the blood and at the mucosal surfaces.
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vaccines-03-00373-f003: Model of induction of immune responses after live attenuated influenza vaccination (LAIV). (1) Intranasal LAIV immunization; (2) Viral antigen is transported to the tonsils/adenoids by the Dendritic Cells (DCs); (3) Activation and proliferation of T and B cells in tonsils/adenoids with help from CD4+ T-cells. Affinity maturation of B cells; (4,5) Activated T and B cells home to site of infection and enter circulation. Plasma cells secrete antibody into the blood and at the mucosal surfaces.

Mentions: An alternative vaccine is the LAIV that is licensed for use in the US, Europe, Russia and India. LAIV is more efficacious in children compared to IIV with meta-analysis reporting up to 80% efficacy in children below 6 years of age to matched strains and 40% efficacy in adults [2,30]. LAIV is administered intranasally and may elicit a longer-lasting, broader immune (humoral and cellular) response, which more closely resembles natural immunity after infection (Figure 3). The use of an intranasal influenza vaccine has clear potential benefits over traditional parenteral administration of the vaccine, particularly in children e.g., long lasting effect, ease of administration, and compliance rates and provides a more appropriate immune response mimicking natural infection.


Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines.

Sridhar S, Brokstad KA, Cox RJ - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Model of induction of immune responses after live attenuated influenza vaccination (LAIV). (1) Intranasal LAIV immunization; (2) Viral antigen is transported to the tonsils/adenoids by the Dendritic Cells (DCs); (3) Activation and proliferation of T and B cells in tonsils/adenoids with help from CD4+ T-cells. Affinity maturation of B cells; (4,5) Activated T and B cells home to site of infection and enter circulation. Plasma cells secrete antibody into the blood and at the mucosal surfaces.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494344&req=5

vaccines-03-00373-f003: Model of induction of immune responses after live attenuated influenza vaccination (LAIV). (1) Intranasal LAIV immunization; (2) Viral antigen is transported to the tonsils/adenoids by the Dendritic Cells (DCs); (3) Activation and proliferation of T and B cells in tonsils/adenoids with help from CD4+ T-cells. Affinity maturation of B cells; (4,5) Activated T and B cells home to site of infection and enter circulation. Plasma cells secrete antibody into the blood and at the mucosal surfaces.
Mentions: An alternative vaccine is the LAIV that is licensed for use in the US, Europe, Russia and India. LAIV is more efficacious in children compared to IIV with meta-analysis reporting up to 80% efficacy in children below 6 years of age to matched strains and 40% efficacy in adults [2,30]. LAIV is administered intranasally and may elicit a longer-lasting, broader immune (humoral and cellular) response, which more closely resembles natural immunity after infection (Figure 3). The use of an intranasal influenza vaccine has clear potential benefits over traditional parenteral administration of the vaccine, particularly in children e.g., long lasting effect, ease of administration, and compliance rates and provides a more appropriate immune response mimicking natural infection.

Bottom Line: The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile.In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2-17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection.Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Saranya.sridhar@ndm.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2-17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus