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Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines.

Sridhar S, Brokstad KA, Cox RJ - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile.In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2-17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection.Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Saranya.sridhar@ndm.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2-17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The structure of Influenza A virus and the ribonucleoprotein complex. The virus proteins are denoted as HA hemagglutinin; NA neuraminidase, M1 matrix protein 1; M2 matrix protein 2; NP nucleoprotein; and the polymerase proteins PA, PB1 and PB2.
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vaccines-03-00373-f001: The structure of Influenza A virus and the ribonucleoprotein complex. The virus proteins are denoted as HA hemagglutinin; NA neuraminidase, M1 matrix protein 1; M2 matrix protein 2; NP nucleoprotein; and the polymerase proteins PA, PB1 and PB2.

Mentions: Influenza is an enveloped negative sense segmented RNA virus with two surface glycoproteins and nine internal proteins (Figure 1). The surface glycoproteins, HA and NA enable attachment, entry and egress of the virus from infected cells. The HA trimer protein has a globular head region with sialic acid receptor binding sites that enable attachment to host cells. Mutations in these receptor-binding sites on the globular head are responsible for the antigenic variation that generates drift variant virus strains responsible for seasonal outbreaks of influenza. At unpredictable intervals, different subtypes of influenza A virus undergo gene reassortments to give rise to a novel virus strain that is capable of causing pandemics in the immunologically naïve population. Once a pandemic virus emerges, it usually replaces the previously circulating Influenza A strain of the same subtype, as seen with the 2009 H1N1pdm09 virus. In addition, avian influenza viruses, e.g., H5N1 or H7N9 can cause human infection following close contact with infected poultry but to date remain non-transmissible between humans.


Influenza Vaccination Strategies: Comparing Inactivated and Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines.

Sridhar S, Brokstad KA, Cox RJ - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

The structure of Influenza A virus and the ribonucleoprotein complex. The virus proteins are denoted as HA hemagglutinin; NA neuraminidase, M1 matrix protein 1; M2 matrix protein 2; NP nucleoprotein; and the polymerase proteins PA, PB1 and PB2.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494344&req=5

vaccines-03-00373-f001: The structure of Influenza A virus and the ribonucleoprotein complex. The virus proteins are denoted as HA hemagglutinin; NA neuraminidase, M1 matrix protein 1; M2 matrix protein 2; NP nucleoprotein; and the polymerase proteins PA, PB1 and PB2.
Mentions: Influenza is an enveloped negative sense segmented RNA virus with two surface glycoproteins and nine internal proteins (Figure 1). The surface glycoproteins, HA and NA enable attachment, entry and egress of the virus from infected cells. The HA trimer protein has a globular head region with sialic acid receptor binding sites that enable attachment to host cells. Mutations in these receptor-binding sites on the globular head are responsible for the antigenic variation that generates drift variant virus strains responsible for seasonal outbreaks of influenza. At unpredictable intervals, different subtypes of influenza A virus undergo gene reassortments to give rise to a novel virus strain that is capable of causing pandemics in the immunologically naïve population. Once a pandemic virus emerges, it usually replaces the previously circulating Influenza A strain of the same subtype, as seen with the 2009 H1N1pdm09 virus. In addition, avian influenza viruses, e.g., H5N1 or H7N9 can cause human infection following close contact with infected poultry but to date remain non-transmissible between humans.

Bottom Line: The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile.In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2-17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection.Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Jenner Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX3 7DQ, UK. Saranya.sridhar@ndm.ox.ac.uk.

ABSTRACT
Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen causing annual outbreaks and occasional pandemics. Influenza vaccination is the major method of prophylaxis. Currently annual influenza vaccination is recommended for groups at high risk of complications from influenza infection such as pregnant women, young children, people with underlying disease and the elderly, along with occupational groups such a healthcare workers and farm workers. There are two main types of vaccines available: the parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine and the intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine. The inactivated vaccines are licensed from 6 months of age and have been used for more than 50 years with a good safety profile. Inactivated vaccines are standardized according to the presence of the viral major surface glycoprotein hemagglutinin and protection is mediated by the induction of vaccine strain specific antibody responses. In contrast, the live attenuated vaccines are licensed in Europe for children from 2-17 years of age and provide a multifaceted immune response with local and systemic antibody and T cell responses but with no clear correlate of protection. Here we discuss the immunological immune responses elicited by the two vaccines and discuss future work to better define correlates of protection.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus