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Nutritional Influences on Skatole Formation and Skatole Metabolism in the Pig.

Wesoly R, Weiler U - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Additionally mechanisms are discussed, by which effective feeding strategies and feed additives exert their influence in the prevention of high skatole concentrations in adipose pig tissue.It was concluded that the most effective measures are those which influence several steps of skatole formation.Despite the numerous studies carried out in the field of skatole physiology, interesting aspects still need clarification, such as the effect of adipose tissue turnover.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Husbandry and Animal Breeding, Behavioral Physiology of Farm Animals (470a), University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 17, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. wesoly@uni-hohenheim.de.

ABSTRACT
Skatole is a tryptophan (TRP) metabolite with fecal odor. Together with the testicular steroid androstenone it is regarded as a main determinant of boar taint, even if elevated concentrations of skatole occur occasionally in gilts and barrows. Skatole concentrations in adipose tissue result from a complex process, which includes the availability of TRP and the presence of specialized bacteria in the gut in need of TRP for energy production, as well as absorption, transport and accumulation of skatole in adipose tissue. Several steps of this process are influenced by diet and specific feed compounds. In the present paper the current knowledge about physiological mechanisms of skatole dynamics is summarized. Additionally mechanisms are discussed, by which effective feeding strategies and feed additives exert their influence in the prevention of high skatole concentrations in adipose pig tissue. It was concluded that the most effective measures are those which influence several steps of skatole formation. Despite the numerous studies carried out in the field of skatole physiology, interesting aspects still need clarification, such as the effect of adipose tissue turnover. Reliable control of skatole accretion in fat of boars is one of the main prerequisites for pork production with entire males.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cascade of physiological events leading to skatole formation, further metabolism and accumulation of skatole in adipose tissue. Steps correspond to Sections 3.1 (A) to 3.6 (F). The right column shows where distinct feeding influences exert their effects. Black arrows: steps leading to high skatole concentrations; brown arrows: skatole reducing or neutral conditions.
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animals-02-00221-f002: Cascade of physiological events leading to skatole formation, further metabolism and accumulation of skatole in adipose tissue. Steps correspond to Sections 3.1 (A) to 3.6 (F). The right column shows where distinct feeding influences exert their effects. Black arrows: steps leading to high skatole concentrations; brown arrows: skatole reducing or neutral conditions.

Mentions: The mechanisms leading to elevated concentrations of skatole in adipose tissue of pigs are summarized in the Figure 2. High concentrations of skatole require (A) a high amount of TRP with low prececal digestibility or cell debris for microbial degradation in the colon, (B) specialized microbes for skatole synthesis, (C) insufficient alternative energy sources for microbial activity, so that the metabolism of TRP to skatole occurs instead of the synthesis of bacterial protein, (D) a high absorption rate, such as in the case of a long transient time of digesta, (E) a reduced degradation of skatole in phase 1 metabolism of liver and phase 2 metabolism in liver and kidney and (F) the deposition in adipose tissue, which requires continuously high concentrations of skatole in peripheral blood and a low turnover of adipose tissue.


Nutritional Influences on Skatole Formation and Skatole Metabolism in the Pig.

Wesoly R, Weiler U - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Cascade of physiological events leading to skatole formation, further metabolism and accumulation of skatole in adipose tissue. Steps correspond to Sections 3.1 (A) to 3.6 (F). The right column shows where distinct feeding influences exert their effects. Black arrows: steps leading to high skatole concentrations; brown arrows: skatole reducing or neutral conditions.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494329&req=5

animals-02-00221-f002: Cascade of physiological events leading to skatole formation, further metabolism and accumulation of skatole in adipose tissue. Steps correspond to Sections 3.1 (A) to 3.6 (F). The right column shows where distinct feeding influences exert their effects. Black arrows: steps leading to high skatole concentrations; brown arrows: skatole reducing or neutral conditions.
Mentions: The mechanisms leading to elevated concentrations of skatole in adipose tissue of pigs are summarized in the Figure 2. High concentrations of skatole require (A) a high amount of TRP with low prececal digestibility or cell debris for microbial degradation in the colon, (B) specialized microbes for skatole synthesis, (C) insufficient alternative energy sources for microbial activity, so that the metabolism of TRP to skatole occurs instead of the synthesis of bacterial protein, (D) a high absorption rate, such as in the case of a long transient time of digesta, (E) a reduced degradation of skatole in phase 1 metabolism of liver and phase 2 metabolism in liver and kidney and (F) the deposition in adipose tissue, which requires continuously high concentrations of skatole in peripheral blood and a low turnover of adipose tissue.

Bottom Line: Additionally mechanisms are discussed, by which effective feeding strategies and feed additives exert their influence in the prevention of high skatole concentrations in adipose pig tissue.It was concluded that the most effective measures are those which influence several steps of skatole formation.Despite the numerous studies carried out in the field of skatole physiology, interesting aspects still need clarification, such as the effect of adipose tissue turnover.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Animal Husbandry and Animal Breeding, Behavioral Physiology of Farm Animals (470a), University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 17, 70593 Stuttgart, Germany. wesoly@uni-hohenheim.de.

ABSTRACT
Skatole is a tryptophan (TRP) metabolite with fecal odor. Together with the testicular steroid androstenone it is regarded as a main determinant of boar taint, even if elevated concentrations of skatole occur occasionally in gilts and barrows. Skatole concentrations in adipose tissue result from a complex process, which includes the availability of TRP and the presence of specialized bacteria in the gut in need of TRP for energy production, as well as absorption, transport and accumulation of skatole in adipose tissue. Several steps of this process are influenced by diet and specific feed compounds. In the present paper the current knowledge about physiological mechanisms of skatole dynamics is summarized. Additionally mechanisms are discussed, by which effective feeding strategies and feed additives exert their influence in the prevention of high skatole concentrations in adipose pig tissue. It was concluded that the most effective measures are those which influence several steps of skatole formation. Despite the numerous studies carried out in the field of skatole physiology, interesting aspects still need clarification, such as the effect of adipose tissue turnover. Reliable control of skatole accretion in fat of boars is one of the main prerequisites for pork production with entire males.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus