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Establishing Bedding Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm Weather.

Kephart R, Johnson A, Sapkota A, Stalder K, McGlone J - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively).Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses.However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. rkdavis@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
During warm weather, incorrect bedding levels on a trailer transporting market weight pigs may result in heat stress, fatigue, and death. Two experiments were conducted in June and July of 2011; Experiment 1 used 80 loads (n = 13,887 pigs) to determine the effects of two bedding levels (3 (68.1 kg) or 6 bags (136.2 kg) of wood shavings/trailer [each bag contained 22.7 kg, 0.2 m³]) on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs). Experiment 2 used 131 loads (n = 22,917 pigs) to determine the effects of bedding (3 vs. 6 bags) on transport losses (dead, sum of dead- and euthanized- on arrival; non-ambulatory, sum of fatigued and injured; total transport losses sum of dead and non-ambulatory). Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively). However, pigs transported on 6 bags/trailer had 1.5% more stress signs than pigs transported on 3 bags/trailer (p < 0.01). No differences were observed between bedding levels for non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p = 0.10, p = 0.67, and p = 0.34, respectively). Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses. However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry. Therefore, 3 bags of bedding/trailer may be used when transporting market weight pigs during warm weather in the Midwestern U.S.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experiment 1. Effects of trailer stocking density on stress signs (p = 0.03; R2 = 0.20).
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animals-04-00476-f003: Experiment 1. Effects of trailer stocking density on stress signs (p = 0.03; R2 = 0.20).

Mentions: However, as trailer stocking density increased in the current work from ~295 to 305 kg/m2 stress signs increased ~13% (p = 0.03, Figure 3). Pigs in the current study were transported at an average trailer stocking density of 296 m2/pig, but the trailer stocking density equation used factored in weight and number of pigs on the trailer and was presented as a continuous variable. This may be why the stress results in the current work disagree with Ritter and others [11] who reported that pigs transported at 0.52 m2/pig (~252 kg/m2) had a higher incidence of skin discoloration than pigs transported at 0.39, 0.42, or 0.46 m2/pig (~336, 312, and 285 kg/m2 respectively). This raises an interesting statistical discussion in regards to fixed effects and covariates, the use of both trailer stocking density and THI equations and in turn results, making comparison of these data sets challenging. Fixed effects allow comparison of discrete categories, but, unlike continuous effects, it is not possible to determine what is happening in the space between categories. Even with more or heavier pigs on the trailer, slips and falls may not increase if pigs are not rushed off the trailer and the floor is dry [21].


Establishing Bedding Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm Weather.

Kephart R, Johnson A, Sapkota A, Stalder K, McGlone J - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Experiment 1. Effects of trailer stocking density on stress signs (p = 0.03; R2 = 0.20).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494312&req=5

animals-04-00476-f003: Experiment 1. Effects of trailer stocking density on stress signs (p = 0.03; R2 = 0.20).
Mentions: However, as trailer stocking density increased in the current work from ~295 to 305 kg/m2 stress signs increased ~13% (p = 0.03, Figure 3). Pigs in the current study were transported at an average trailer stocking density of 296 m2/pig, but the trailer stocking density equation used factored in weight and number of pigs on the trailer and was presented as a continuous variable. This may be why the stress results in the current work disagree with Ritter and others [11] who reported that pigs transported at 0.52 m2/pig (~252 kg/m2) had a higher incidence of skin discoloration than pigs transported at 0.39, 0.42, or 0.46 m2/pig (~336, 312, and 285 kg/m2 respectively). This raises an interesting statistical discussion in regards to fixed effects and covariates, the use of both trailer stocking density and THI equations and in turn results, making comparison of these data sets challenging. Fixed effects allow comparison of discrete categories, but, unlike continuous effects, it is not possible to determine what is happening in the space between categories. Even with more or heavier pigs on the trailer, slips and falls may not increase if pigs are not rushed off the trailer and the floor is dry [21].

Bottom Line: Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively).Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses.However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. rkdavis@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
During warm weather, incorrect bedding levels on a trailer transporting market weight pigs may result in heat stress, fatigue, and death. Two experiments were conducted in June and July of 2011; Experiment 1 used 80 loads (n = 13,887 pigs) to determine the effects of two bedding levels (3 (68.1 kg) or 6 bags (136.2 kg) of wood shavings/trailer [each bag contained 22.7 kg, 0.2 m³]) on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs). Experiment 2 used 131 loads (n = 22,917 pigs) to determine the effects of bedding (3 vs. 6 bags) on transport losses (dead, sum of dead- and euthanized- on arrival; non-ambulatory, sum of fatigued and injured; total transport losses sum of dead and non-ambulatory). Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively). However, pigs transported on 6 bags/trailer had 1.5% more stress signs than pigs transported on 3 bags/trailer (p < 0.01). No differences were observed between bedding levels for non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p = 0.10, p = 0.67, and p = 0.34, respectively). Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses. However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry. Therefore, 3 bags of bedding/trailer may be used when transporting market weight pigs during warm weather in the Midwestern U.S.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus