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Establishing Bedding Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm Weather.

Kephart R, Johnson A, Sapkota A, Stalder K, McGlone J - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively).Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses.However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. rkdavis@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
During warm weather, incorrect bedding levels on a trailer transporting market weight pigs may result in heat stress, fatigue, and death. Two experiments were conducted in June and July of 2011; Experiment 1 used 80 loads (n = 13,887 pigs) to determine the effects of two bedding levels (3 (68.1 kg) or 6 bags (136.2 kg) of wood shavings/trailer [each bag contained 22.7 kg, 0.2 m³]) on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs). Experiment 2 used 131 loads (n = 22,917 pigs) to determine the effects of bedding (3 vs. 6 bags) on transport losses (dead, sum of dead- and euthanized- on arrival; non-ambulatory, sum of fatigued and injured; total transport losses sum of dead and non-ambulatory). Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively). However, pigs transported on 6 bags/trailer had 1.5% more stress signs than pigs transported on 3 bags/trailer (p < 0.01). No differences were observed between bedding levels for non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p = 0.10, p = 0.67, and p = 0.34, respectively). Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses. However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry. Therefore, 3 bags of bedding/trailer may be used when transporting market weight pigs during warm weather in the Midwestern U.S.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Experiment 1. Effects of temperature humidity index (THI) at unloading on surface temperature of pigs at unloading (p < 0.01; R2 = 0.47).
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animals-04-00476-f001: Experiment 1. Effects of temperature humidity index (THI) at unloading on surface temperature of pigs at unloading (p < 0.01; R2 = 0.47).

Mentions: As THI increased from ~13 to 23, surface temperature increased ~14 °C (p < 0.01; Figure 1). As THI increased from ~19 to 24 vocalizations increased ~18% and stress signs increased ~13% (p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively; Figure 2). The relationship between THI and surface temperature were moderate (R2 = 0.47). The relationship between THI- and vocalizations and stress signs was weak (R2 = 0.10 and R2 = 0.20, respectively). A pig’s thermo-neutral zone ranges from 10 to 21 °C [39] and their normal core temperature ranges from ~39 to 40 °C [40]. Although surface temperature has been shown to be reflective of core temperature it is slower to reflect changes in core temperature than rectal measurement [41]. When pigs become heat stressed they will pant and increase blood flow to skin and limbs [42,43]. Increasing blood flow to the skin can cause discolored skin. It follows that this could also cause increased skin temperature. Although surface temperature ranges seen in this study are not reflective of heat stressed pigs, this may simply mean that the pigs’ physiological mechanisms for coping with heat were acting effectively.


Establishing Bedding Requirements on Trailers Transporting Market Weight Pigs in Warm Weather.

Kephart R, Johnson A, Sapkota A, Stalder K, McGlone J - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Experiment 1. Effects of temperature humidity index (THI) at unloading on surface temperature of pigs at unloading (p < 0.01; R2 = 0.47).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494312&req=5

animals-04-00476-f001: Experiment 1. Effects of temperature humidity index (THI) at unloading on surface temperature of pigs at unloading (p < 0.01; R2 = 0.47).
Mentions: As THI increased from ~13 to 23, surface temperature increased ~14 °C (p < 0.01; Figure 1). As THI increased from ~19 to 24 vocalizations increased ~18% and stress signs increased ~13% (p < 0.01 and p = 0.04, respectively; Figure 2). The relationship between THI and surface temperature were moderate (R2 = 0.47). The relationship between THI- and vocalizations and stress signs was weak (R2 = 0.10 and R2 = 0.20, respectively). A pig’s thermo-neutral zone ranges from 10 to 21 °C [39] and their normal core temperature ranges from ~39 to 40 °C [40]. Although surface temperature has been shown to be reflective of core temperature it is slower to reflect changes in core temperature than rectal measurement [41]. When pigs become heat stressed they will pant and increase blood flow to skin and limbs [42,43]. Increasing blood flow to the skin can cause discolored skin. It follows that this could also cause increased skin temperature. Although surface temperature ranges seen in this study are not reflective of heat stressed pigs, this may simply mean that the pigs’ physiological mechanisms for coping with heat were acting effectively.

Bottom Line: Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively).Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses.However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. rkdavis@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
During warm weather, incorrect bedding levels on a trailer transporting market weight pigs may result in heat stress, fatigue, and death. Two experiments were conducted in June and July of 2011; Experiment 1 used 80 loads (n = 13,887 pigs) to determine the effects of two bedding levels (3 (68.1 kg) or 6 bags (136.2 kg) of wood shavings/trailer [each bag contained 22.7 kg, 0.2 m³]) on pig measures (surface temperature, vocalizations, slips and falls, and stress signs). Experiment 2 used 131 loads (n = 22,917 pigs) to determine the effects of bedding (3 vs. 6 bags) on transport losses (dead, sum of dead- and euthanized- on arrival; non-ambulatory, sum of fatigued and injured; total transport losses sum of dead and non-ambulatory). Bedding did not affect surface temperature, vocalizations, or slips and falls (p = 0.58, p = 0.50, and p = 0.28, respectively). However, pigs transported on 6 bags/trailer had 1.5% more stress signs than pigs transported on 3 bags/trailer (p < 0.01). No differences were observed between bedding levels for non-ambulatory, dead, or total transport losses (p = 0.10, p = 0.67, and p = 0.34, respectively). Within the context of these experiments, bedding level did not result in deleterious effects on pig measures or transport losses. However, using more bedding may result in higher costs to the industry. Therefore, 3 bags of bedding/trailer may be used when transporting market weight pigs during warm weather in the Midwestern U.S.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus