Limits...
Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management.

Koene P, Ipema B - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans.Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes.It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Welfare, Wageningen UR Livestock Research, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands. paul.koene@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT
It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

No MeSH data available.


Social networks of Dartmoor ponies on extensive pasture, based on significant positive associations (left graph) and negative associations (right graph). Note that some individual attributes (mare/foal and their genetic relation) are given.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494306&req=5

animals-04-00093-f001: Social networks of Dartmoor ponies on extensive pasture, based on significant positive associations (left graph) and negative associations (right graph). Note that some individual attributes (mare/foal and their genetic relation) are given.

Mentions: The average NND was 8.78 meter (SD of 8.98 meters). The network based on positive associations has a density of 0.21 and shows strong associations between Mare1-Foal1, Mare4-Foal4 and Mare5-Foal5 (Figure 1; left graph). Pair Mare3-Foal3 displays no significant relationship, but Mare2, Mare3 and Mare4 do. Foal4 has the most associations. The negative network, (Figure 1; right graph) density 0.31, shows that unrelated mares and foals avoid each other, while foals do not avoid each other and that Mare5 is often avoided. The strongest negative association is between Mare2 and Foal4 (thickest line).


Social Networks and Welfare in Future Animal Management.

Koene P, Ipema B - Animals (Basel) (2014)

Social networks of Dartmoor ponies on extensive pasture, based on significant positive associations (left graph) and negative associations (right graph). Note that some individual attributes (mare/foal and their genetic relation) are given.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494306&req=5

animals-04-00093-f001: Social networks of Dartmoor ponies on extensive pasture, based on significant positive associations (left graph) and negative associations (right graph). Note that some individual attributes (mare/foal and their genetic relation) are given.
Mentions: The average NND was 8.78 meter (SD of 8.98 meters). The network based on positive associations has a density of 0.21 and shows strong associations between Mare1-Foal1, Mare4-Foal4 and Mare5-Foal5 (Figure 1; left graph). Pair Mare3-Foal3 displays no significant relationship, but Mare2, Mare3 and Mare4 do. Foal4 has the most associations. The negative network, (Figure 1; right graph) density 0.31, shows that unrelated mares and foals avoid each other, while foals do not avoid each other and that Mare5 is often avoided. The strongest negative association is between Mare2 and Foal4 (thickest line).

Bottom Line: We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans.Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes.It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Welfare, Wageningen UR Livestock Research, P.O. Box 65, 8200 AB Lelystad, The Netherlands. paul.koene@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT
It may become advantageous to keep human-managed animals in the social network groups to which they have adapted. Data concerning the social networks of farm animal species and their ancestors are scarce but essential to establishing the importance of a natural social network for farmed animal species. Social Network Analysis (SNA) facilitates the characterization of social networking at group, subgroup and individual levels. SNA is currently used for modeling the social behavior and management of wild animals and social welfare of zoo animals. It has been recognized for use with farm animals but has yet to be applied for management purposes. Currently, the main focus is on cattle, because in large groups (poultry), recording of individuals is expensive and the existence of social networks is uncertain due to on-farm restrictions. However, in many cases, a stable social network might be important to individual animal fitness, survival and welfare. For instance, when laying hens are not too densely housed, simple networks may be established. We describe here small social networks in horses, brown bears, laying hens and veal calves to illustrate the importance of measuring social networks among animals managed by humans. Emphasis is placed on the automatic measurement of identity, location, nearest neighbors and nearest neighbor distance for management purposes. It is concluded that social networks are important to the welfare of human-managed animal species and that welfare management based on automatic recordings will become available in the near future.

No MeSH data available.