Limits...
Effectiveness of Gel Repellents on Feral Pigeons.

Stock B, Haag-Wackernagel D - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Bottom Line: This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint.The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues.Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Pestalozzistrasse 20, 4056 Basel, Switzerland. birte.stock@unibas.ch.

ABSTRACT
Millions of feral pigeons (Columba livia) live in close association with the human population in our cities. They pose serious health risks to humans and lead to high economic loss due to damage caused to buildings. Consequently, house owners and city authorities are not willing to allow pigeons on their buildings. While various avian repellents are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy is lacking. This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint. The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues. We mounted experimental shelves with the installed repellents in a pigeon loft and observed the behavior of free-living feral pigeons towards the systems. Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness. Additionally, the gels' adhesive effect remains doubtful in view of animal welfare because gluing of plumage presents a risk to feral pigeons and also to other non-target birds. This study infers that both gels lack the promised complete efficacy, conflict with animal welfare concerns and are therefore not suitable for feral pigeon management in urban areas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Feral pigeons’ (a) mean number of landings per day and (b) mean time spent on the shelf in seconds per landing for the three phases pretrial, Days 1–3 and Days 4–25 of the optical gel experiment in Basel, Switzerland, during August–October 2012. Values are means and the segments indicate Bayesian 95% credible intervals. For the mean number of landings, with n per phase being 3, 2 and 13 recorded days, respectively, a Quasi-Poisson model was used. For the mean time spent on the shelf, a mixed model with the log-transformed time on the shelf as the outcome variable (results back transformed for the graph), phase as fixed factor, and day as random factor was used with n per phase being 56, 3 and 13, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494298&req=5

animals-04-00001-f002: Feral pigeons’ (a) mean number of landings per day and (b) mean time spent on the shelf in seconds per landing for the three phases pretrial, Days 1–3 and Days 4–25 of the optical gel experiment in Basel, Switzerland, during August–October 2012. Values are means and the segments indicate Bayesian 95% credible intervals. For the mean number of landings, with n per phase being 3, 2 and 13 recorded days, respectively, a Quasi-Poisson model was used. For the mean time spent on the shelf, a mixed model with the log-transformed time on the shelf as the outcome variable (results back transformed for the graph), phase as fixed factor, and day as random factor was used with n per phase being 56, 3 and 13, respectively.

Mentions: During the optical gel repellent test we observed that all approaches to the experimental setup were finished with a landing. We observed a total of 56 landings during the pretrial phase. For trial Days 1–3 we monitored a total of three landings and for trial Days 4–25 a total of 13 landings. The trial phase showed a significant decrease in landings per day compared to the pretrial phase (Figure 2a). During the pretrial phase we detected a mean of 18.6 (12.0–28.9) landings per day, during trial Days 1–3 a mean of 1.53 (0.23–10.45), and during trial Days 4–25 a mean of 1.01 (0.40–2.44). We recorded no difference between trial Days 1–3 and 4–25.


Effectiveness of Gel Repellents on Feral Pigeons.

Stock B, Haag-Wackernagel D - Animals (Basel) (2013)

Feral pigeons’ (a) mean number of landings per day and (b) mean time spent on the shelf in seconds per landing for the three phases pretrial, Days 1–3 and Days 4–25 of the optical gel experiment in Basel, Switzerland, during August–October 2012. Values are means and the segments indicate Bayesian 95% credible intervals. For the mean number of landings, with n per phase being 3, 2 and 13 recorded days, respectively, a Quasi-Poisson model was used. For the mean time spent on the shelf, a mixed model with the log-transformed time on the shelf as the outcome variable (results back transformed for the graph), phase as fixed factor, and day as random factor was used with n per phase being 56, 3 and 13, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494298&req=5

animals-04-00001-f002: Feral pigeons’ (a) mean number of landings per day and (b) mean time spent on the shelf in seconds per landing for the three phases pretrial, Days 1–3 and Days 4–25 of the optical gel experiment in Basel, Switzerland, during August–October 2012. Values are means and the segments indicate Bayesian 95% credible intervals. For the mean number of landings, with n per phase being 3, 2 and 13 recorded days, respectively, a Quasi-Poisson model was used. For the mean time spent on the shelf, a mixed model with the log-transformed time on the shelf as the outcome variable (results back transformed for the graph), phase as fixed factor, and day as random factor was used with n per phase being 56, 3 and 13, respectively.
Mentions: During the optical gel repellent test we observed that all approaches to the experimental setup were finished with a landing. We observed a total of 56 landings during the pretrial phase. For trial Days 1–3 we monitored a total of three landings and for trial Days 4–25 a total of 13 landings. The trial phase showed a significant decrease in landings per day compared to the pretrial phase (Figure 2a). During the pretrial phase we detected a mean of 18.6 (12.0–28.9) landings per day, during trial Days 1–3 a mean of 1.53 (0.23–10.45), and during trial Days 4–25 a mean of 1.01 (0.40–2.44). We recorded no difference between trial Days 1–3 and 4–25.

Bottom Line: This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint.The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues.Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedicine, University of Basel, Pestalozzistrasse 20, 4056 Basel, Switzerland. birte.stock@unibas.ch.

ABSTRACT
Millions of feral pigeons (Columba livia) live in close association with the human population in our cities. They pose serious health risks to humans and lead to high economic loss due to damage caused to buildings. Consequently, house owners and city authorities are not willing to allow pigeons on their buildings. While various avian repellents are regularly introduced onto the market, scientific proof of efficacy is lacking. This study aimed at testing the effectiveness of two avian gel repellents and additionally examined their application from animal welfare standpoint. The gels used an alleged tactile or visual aversion of the birds, reinforced by additional sensory cues. We mounted experimental shelves with the installed repellents in a pigeon loft and observed the behavior of free-living feral pigeons towards the systems. Both gels showed a restricted, transient repellent effect, but failed to prove the claimed complete effectiveness. Additionally, the gels' adhesive effect remains doubtful in view of animal welfare because gluing of plumage presents a risk to feral pigeons and also to other non-target birds. This study infers that both gels lack the promised complete efficacy, conflict with animal welfare concerns and are therefore not suitable for feral pigeon management in urban areas.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus