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One Medicine, One Acupuncture.

Robinson NG - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation.If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur.Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSU Center for Comparative and Integrative Pain Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Narda.Robinson@colostate.edu.

ABSTRACT
"One Acupuncture", like "One Medicine", has the potential to improve research quality and clinical outcomes. However, while human acupuncture point locations have remained largely consistent over time, the veterinary versions remain imprecise and variable. Establishing anatomical criteria for veterinary acupuncture atlases in keeping with the human template will create congruence across species, benefiting both research and practice. Anatomic criteria for points based on objectively verifiable structures will facilitate translational research. Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation. If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur. Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species. This paper reveals incongruities that remain between human and veterinary acupuncture points, illustrating the need to analyze anatomical characteristics of each point to assure accuracy in selecting transpositional acupuncture locations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

This lateral, layered view of the human illustrates the relationship between the temporalis muscle and a short segment of the Gallbladder channel. Although in humans and ruminants the temporalis muscle is confined to the lateral cranium, in carnivores it may extend up over the head to reach the midline. This would change the configuration of the Gallbladder (GB) channel and the layout of points along it. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Teton NewMedia. From [17]).
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animals-02-00395-f005: This lateral, layered view of the human illustrates the relationship between the temporalis muscle and a short segment of the Gallbladder channel. Although in humans and ruminants the temporalis muscle is confined to the lateral cranium, in carnivores it may extend up over the head to reach the midline. This would change the configuration of the Gallbladder (GB) channel and the layout of points along it. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Teton NewMedia. From [17]).

Mentions: The temporalis muscle, a muscle of mastication, varies widely between the dog, ox, horse, and human. In dogs, the temporalis nearly reaches the midline, while in ruminants it remains relegated to a small area on the lateral cranium, pushed aside by the expansive frontal bone that forms the roof of the skull in the ox and pigs. Thus, defining the length and orientation of the Gallbladder channel trajectory in various species must taken into account the surface area of the temporalis muscle atop of which GB 4 through GB 9 reside. Simply drawing a similar line that resembles that of the human misses the meaning of why the points are where they are; i.e., the functions and physiologic effects they provide. These GB points in the human most commonly treat temporalis trigger points caused by bruxism (teeth grinding), malocclusion, or other stress and dental disorders. The human image in Figure 5 illustrates the relationship of these points to the temporalis muscle.


One Medicine, One Acupuncture.

Robinson NG - Animals (Basel) (2012)

This lateral, layered view of the human illustrates the relationship between the temporalis muscle and a short segment of the Gallbladder channel. Although in humans and ruminants the temporalis muscle is confined to the lateral cranium, in carnivores it may extend up over the head to reach the midline. This would change the configuration of the Gallbladder (GB) channel and the layout of points along it. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Teton NewMedia. From [17]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494296&req=5

animals-02-00395-f005: This lateral, layered view of the human illustrates the relationship between the temporalis muscle and a short segment of the Gallbladder channel. Although in humans and ruminants the temporalis muscle is confined to the lateral cranium, in carnivores it may extend up over the head to reach the midline. This would change the configuration of the Gallbladder (GB) channel and the layout of points along it. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Teton NewMedia. From [17]).
Mentions: The temporalis muscle, a muscle of mastication, varies widely between the dog, ox, horse, and human. In dogs, the temporalis nearly reaches the midline, while in ruminants it remains relegated to a small area on the lateral cranium, pushed aside by the expansive frontal bone that forms the roof of the skull in the ox and pigs. Thus, defining the length and orientation of the Gallbladder channel trajectory in various species must taken into account the surface area of the temporalis muscle atop of which GB 4 through GB 9 reside. Simply drawing a similar line that resembles that of the human misses the meaning of why the points are where they are; i.e., the functions and physiologic effects they provide. These GB points in the human most commonly treat temporalis trigger points caused by bruxism (teeth grinding), malocclusion, or other stress and dental disorders. The human image in Figure 5 illustrates the relationship of these points to the temporalis muscle.

Bottom Line: Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation.If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur.Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSU Center for Comparative and Integrative Pain Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Narda.Robinson@colostate.edu.

ABSTRACT
"One Acupuncture", like "One Medicine", has the potential to improve research quality and clinical outcomes. However, while human acupuncture point locations have remained largely consistent over time, the veterinary versions remain imprecise and variable. Establishing anatomical criteria for veterinary acupuncture atlases in keeping with the human template will create congruence across species, benefiting both research and practice. Anatomic criteria for points based on objectively verifiable structures will facilitate translational research. Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation. If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur. Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species. This paper reveals incongruities that remain between human and veterinary acupuncture points, illustrating the need to analyze anatomical characteristics of each point to assure accuracy in selecting transpositional acupuncture locations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus