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One Medicine, One Acupuncture.

Robinson NG - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation.If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur.Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSU Center for Comparative and Integrative Pain Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Narda.Robinson@colostate.edu.

ABSTRACT
"One Acupuncture", like "One Medicine", has the potential to improve research quality and clinical outcomes. However, while human acupuncture point locations have remained largely consistent over time, the veterinary versions remain imprecise and variable. Establishing anatomical criteria for veterinary acupuncture atlases in keeping with the human template will create congruence across species, benefiting both research and practice. Anatomic criteria for points based on objectively verifiable structures will facilitate translational research. Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation. If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur. Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species. This paper reveals incongruities that remain between human and veterinary acupuncture points, illustrating the need to analyze anatomical characteristics of each point to assure accuracy in selecting transpositional acupuncture locations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) This image illustrates the complete bony orbit of the human. Note the relationship of periocular acupuncture points to the orbit, showing how a needle inserted into TH 23 would reach bone and deliver feedback through the needle and to the acupuncturist that a hard surface was reached. In addition, this rendition reveals the complex interplay of trigeminal and facial nerve branches that mediate the ophthalmic benefits of needling TH 23. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Teton NewMedia. From [17]); (b) This overlay image of the dog reveals the relationship of the skull to a dog’s external features. Note the hiatus of the orbit between GB 1 and the site just ventral to TH 23. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Colorado State University).
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animals-02-00395-f001: (a) This image illustrates the complete bony orbit of the human. Note the relationship of periocular acupuncture points to the orbit, showing how a needle inserted into TH 23 would reach bone and deliver feedback through the needle and to the acupuncturist that a hard surface was reached. In addition, this rendition reveals the complex interplay of trigeminal and facial nerve branches that mediate the ophthalmic benefits of needling TH 23. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Teton NewMedia. From [17]); (b) This overlay image of the dog reveals the relationship of the skull to a dog’s external features. Note the hiatus of the orbit between GB 1 and the site just ventral to TH 23. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Colorado State University).

Mentions: Another way in which a One Acupuncture approach would augment safety pertains to precautions needed when needling over organs or vessels. Practitioners who cross train (i.e., gain the ability through appropriate credentialing and lawful licensing to perform both human and veterinary acupuncture) should gain sufficient familiarity with each species’ anatomy in order to avoid injury. One example concerns the treatment of dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca). Both humans and dogs experience this condition; acupuncture studies show value for humans, but there are no studies in dogs. Safely extrapolating point locations from humans to dogs requires knowledge of the differences in periocular anatomy between humans and dogs. That is, most carnivores have an incomplete bony orbital rim while humans and herbivores form complete rings. Compare the orbital anatomy of the human and dog in Figure 1(a,b). Clinically, because only a thin layer of muscle covers the human rim, an acupuncturist expects to encounter hard resistance when the needle meets bone beneath Triple Heater 23 (TH 23, Si Zhu Kong, “Silken Bamboo Hollow”). For example, see the cross section of the human skull at the level of TH 23 in Figure 2). If an acupuncturist expected to reach bone at this site in a dog when needling TH 23, s/he may insert the needle too deeply and penetrate the globe.


One Medicine, One Acupuncture.

Robinson NG - Animals (Basel) (2012)

(a) This image illustrates the complete bony orbit of the human. Note the relationship of periocular acupuncture points to the orbit, showing how a needle inserted into TH 23 would reach bone and deliver feedback through the needle and to the acupuncturist that a hard surface was reached. In addition, this rendition reveals the complex interplay of trigeminal and facial nerve branches that mediate the ophthalmic benefits of needling TH 23. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Teton NewMedia. From [17]); (b) This overlay image of the dog reveals the relationship of the skull to a dog’s external features. Note the hiatus of the orbit between GB 1 and the site just ventral to TH 23. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Colorado State University).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494296&req=5

animals-02-00395-f001: (a) This image illustrates the complete bony orbit of the human. Note the relationship of periocular acupuncture points to the orbit, showing how a needle inserted into TH 23 would reach bone and deliver feedback through the needle and to the acupuncturist that a hard surface was reached. In addition, this rendition reveals the complex interplay of trigeminal and facial nerve branches that mediate the ophthalmic benefits of needling TH 23. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Teton NewMedia. From [17]); (b) This overlay image of the dog reveals the relationship of the skull to a dog’s external features. Note the hiatus of the orbit between GB 1 and the site just ventral to TH 23. (Image courtesy of Narda G. Robinson, DO, DVM, MS and Colorado State University).
Mentions: Another way in which a One Acupuncture approach would augment safety pertains to precautions needed when needling over organs or vessels. Practitioners who cross train (i.e., gain the ability through appropriate credentialing and lawful licensing to perform both human and veterinary acupuncture) should gain sufficient familiarity with each species’ anatomy in order to avoid injury. One example concerns the treatment of dry eye (keratoconjunctivitis sicca). Both humans and dogs experience this condition; acupuncture studies show value for humans, but there are no studies in dogs. Safely extrapolating point locations from humans to dogs requires knowledge of the differences in periocular anatomy between humans and dogs. That is, most carnivores have an incomplete bony orbital rim while humans and herbivores form complete rings. Compare the orbital anatomy of the human and dog in Figure 1(a,b). Clinically, because only a thin layer of muscle covers the human rim, an acupuncturist expects to encounter hard resistance when the needle meets bone beneath Triple Heater 23 (TH 23, Si Zhu Kong, “Silken Bamboo Hollow”). For example, see the cross section of the human skull at the level of TH 23 in Figure 2). If an acupuncturist expected to reach bone at this site in a dog when needling TH 23, s/he may insert the needle too deeply and penetrate the globe.

Bottom Line: Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation.If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur.Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: CSU Center for Comparative and Integrative Pain Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, 300 West Drake Road, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA. Narda.Robinson@colostate.edu.

ABSTRACT
"One Acupuncture", like "One Medicine", has the potential to improve research quality and clinical outcomes. However, while human acupuncture point locations have remained largely consistent over time, the veterinary versions remain imprecise and variable. Establishing anatomical criteria for veterinary acupuncture atlases in keeping with the human template will create congruence across species, benefiting both research and practice. Anatomic criteria for points based on objectively verifiable structures will facilitate translational research. Functionally comparative innervation, in particular, should be similar between species, as the nerves initiate and mediate physiologic changes that result from point stimulation. If researchers choose points that activate different nerves in one species than in another, unpredictable outcomes may occur. Variability in point placement will impede progress and hamper the ability of researchers and clinicians to make meaningful comparisons across species. This paper reveals incongruities that remain between human and veterinary acupuncture points, illustrating the need to analyze anatomical characteristics of each point to assure accuracy in selecting transpositional acupuncture locations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus