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Acupuncture Points of the Horse's Distal Thoracic Limb: A Neuroanatomic Approach to the Transposition of Traditional Points.

Lancaster LS, Bowker RM - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points.Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible.Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Acupuncture for Veterinarians Course, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA. lvs@cosa.com.

ABSTRACT
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible. To date there is no published research on the effect of acupuncture treatment of the equine distal limb points. This paper presents a modified approach to equine distal limb point selection based on what is known from research on other species about the neuroanatomic method of acupuncture. A rationale is presented for modification of traditional equine ting points as well as additional points around the hoof and distal limb that do not appear in the standard textbooks of equine acupuncture. The anatomy and physiology of the equine foot likely to be affected by acupuncture are briefly reviewed. Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points. As an example of clinical application, a neuroanatomic approach to acupuncture treatment of equine laminitis is presented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Equine foot and lower limb specimen distal to carpus with epidermal tissues removed. (b) Live horse medial and lateral views showing location of proposed acupuncture points. Green dots: previously termed ting points, now coronet points. Red dots: additional coronet point over ungual cartilage. Blue star: equine ting point over PDN nerve block location. Yellow squares: additional block points, distal point—abaxial block, proximal to MCP joint—low 4 point block, distal to carpus, high 4 point block.
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animals-02-00455-f003: (a) Equine foot and lower limb specimen distal to carpus with epidermal tissues removed. (b) Live horse medial and lateral views showing location of proposed acupuncture points. Green dots: previously termed ting points, now coronet points. Red dots: additional coronet point over ungual cartilage. Blue star: equine ting point over PDN nerve block location. Yellow squares: additional block points, distal point—abaxial block, proximal to MCP joint—low 4 point block, distal to carpus, high 4 point block.

Mentions: The venous plexus most directly accessible to acupuncture treatment is the coronary venous plexus around the circumference of the foot. On palpation the tissue just proximal to the hairline on the dorsum of the foot has a soft tissue feel but the plexuses extend around the entire foot over the quarters and heel bulbs where the proximal portion of the collateral cartilages gives this plexus a harder, less distinct tissue feel. Traditionally ting points were placed at the dorsal and palmar midline, and at medial and lateral locations. The precise site varies in different texts but usually the caudal medial and lateral points are placed cranial to the lateral cartilages [7]. Distinctive tissue feel (described in medical terms as edematous or atrophied) was an important diagnostic marker for traditional Chinese medicine [9]. The cartilaginous hard tissue feel of the horse’s palmar coronet region lacks such distinctive tissue feel which may be a reason why these equine points were not over the ungual cartilage. Proposed coronet points include all points around the circumference of the foot that includes previously termed ting points and heel bulb points, plus the addition of points over the ungual cartilage which is an area rich in superficial innervation (Figure 2(a,b) and Figure 3(a,b)).


Acupuncture Points of the Horse's Distal Thoracic Limb: A Neuroanatomic Approach to the Transposition of Traditional Points.

Lancaster LS, Bowker RM - Animals (Basel) (2012)

(a) Equine foot and lower limb specimen distal to carpus with epidermal tissues removed. (b) Live horse medial and lateral views showing location of proposed acupuncture points. Green dots: previously termed ting points, now coronet points. Red dots: additional coronet point over ungual cartilage. Blue star: equine ting point over PDN nerve block location. Yellow squares: additional block points, distal point—abaxial block, proximal to MCP joint—low 4 point block, distal to carpus, high 4 point block.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494290&req=5

animals-02-00455-f003: (a) Equine foot and lower limb specimen distal to carpus with epidermal tissues removed. (b) Live horse medial and lateral views showing location of proposed acupuncture points. Green dots: previously termed ting points, now coronet points. Red dots: additional coronet point over ungual cartilage. Blue star: equine ting point over PDN nerve block location. Yellow squares: additional block points, distal point—abaxial block, proximal to MCP joint—low 4 point block, distal to carpus, high 4 point block.
Mentions: The venous plexus most directly accessible to acupuncture treatment is the coronary venous plexus around the circumference of the foot. On palpation the tissue just proximal to the hairline on the dorsum of the foot has a soft tissue feel but the plexuses extend around the entire foot over the quarters and heel bulbs where the proximal portion of the collateral cartilages gives this plexus a harder, less distinct tissue feel. Traditionally ting points were placed at the dorsal and palmar midline, and at medial and lateral locations. The precise site varies in different texts but usually the caudal medial and lateral points are placed cranial to the lateral cartilages [7]. Distinctive tissue feel (described in medical terms as edematous or atrophied) was an important diagnostic marker for traditional Chinese medicine [9]. The cartilaginous hard tissue feel of the horse’s palmar coronet region lacks such distinctive tissue feel which may be a reason why these equine points were not over the ungual cartilage. Proposed coronet points include all points around the circumference of the foot that includes previously termed ting points and heel bulb points, plus the addition of points over the ungual cartilage which is an area rich in superficial innervation (Figure 2(a,b) and Figure 3(a,b)).

Bottom Line: Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points.Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible.Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Acupuncture for Veterinarians Course, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA. lvs@cosa.com.

ABSTRACT
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible. To date there is no published research on the effect of acupuncture treatment of the equine distal limb points. This paper presents a modified approach to equine distal limb point selection based on what is known from research on other species about the neuroanatomic method of acupuncture. A rationale is presented for modification of traditional equine ting points as well as additional points around the hoof and distal limb that do not appear in the standard textbooks of equine acupuncture. The anatomy and physiology of the equine foot likely to be affected by acupuncture are briefly reviewed. Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points. As an example of clinical application, a neuroanatomic approach to acupuncture treatment of equine laminitis is presented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus