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Acupuncture Points of the Horse's Distal Thoracic Limb: A Neuroanatomic Approach to the Transposition of Traditional Points.

Lancaster LS, Bowker RM - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points.Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible.Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Acupuncture for Veterinarians Course, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA. lvs@cosa.com.

ABSTRACT
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible. To date there is no published research on the effect of acupuncture treatment of the equine distal limb points. This paper presents a modified approach to equine distal limb point selection based on what is known from research on other species about the neuroanatomic method of acupuncture. A rationale is presented for modification of traditional equine ting points as well as additional points around the hoof and distal limb that do not appear in the standard textbooks of equine acupuncture. The anatomy and physiology of the equine foot likely to be affected by acupuncture are briefly reviewed. Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points. As an example of clinical application, a neuroanatomic approach to acupuncture treatment of equine laminitis is presented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Equine foot specimen sagittal section with hoof capsule removed. Labels identify structures likely to be influenced by acupuncture needles in coronet and nerve block point locations. (b) Equine foot specimen with hoof capsule and skin removed, laminar and coronary dermis left intact.
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animals-02-00455-f001: (a) Equine foot specimen sagittal section with hoof capsule removed. Labels identify structures likely to be influenced by acupuncture needles in coronet and nerve block point locations. (b) Equine foot specimen with hoof capsule and skin removed, laminar and coronary dermis left intact.

Mentions: The equine digit refers to the structures distal to metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) (Figure 1(a,b)). The equine digit includes four bones: the first, second and third phalanges, and the navicular bone (distal sesamoid). The term foot refers to all structures enclosed within the hoof capsule. The hoof capsule and its internal contents include the distal phalanx and distal sesamoid bone, and dermal and epidermal components of the coronary region, hoof wall, frog, bars, sole, white line, digital cushion, ungual cartilage, and laminae. The region where the proximal hoof wall meets the haired skin is called the coronet or coronary band. The digit has ligaments between bones as well as between bone and ungual (commonly termed lateral) cartilage. There are no muscles distal to the carpus or tarsus. The tendons within the foot have their muscle bellies on the proximal limb.


Acupuncture Points of the Horse's Distal Thoracic Limb: A Neuroanatomic Approach to the Transposition of Traditional Points.

Lancaster LS, Bowker RM - Animals (Basel) (2012)

(a) Equine foot specimen sagittal section with hoof capsule removed. Labels identify structures likely to be influenced by acupuncture needles in coronet and nerve block point locations. (b) Equine foot specimen with hoof capsule and skin removed, laminar and coronary dermis left intact.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494290&req=5

animals-02-00455-f001: (a) Equine foot specimen sagittal section with hoof capsule removed. Labels identify structures likely to be influenced by acupuncture needles in coronet and nerve block point locations. (b) Equine foot specimen with hoof capsule and skin removed, laminar and coronary dermis left intact.
Mentions: The equine digit refers to the structures distal to metacarpophalangeal or metatarsophalangeal joint (fetlock) (Figure 1(a,b)). The equine digit includes four bones: the first, second and third phalanges, and the navicular bone (distal sesamoid). The term foot refers to all structures enclosed within the hoof capsule. The hoof capsule and its internal contents include the distal phalanx and distal sesamoid bone, and dermal and epidermal components of the coronary region, hoof wall, frog, bars, sole, white line, digital cushion, ungual cartilage, and laminae. The region where the proximal hoof wall meets the haired skin is called the coronet or coronary band. The digit has ligaments between bones as well as between bone and ungual (commonly termed lateral) cartilage. There are no muscles distal to the carpus or tarsus. The tendons within the foot have their muscle bellies on the proximal limb.

Bottom Line: Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points.Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible.Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Medical Acupuncture for Veterinarians Course, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80525, USA. lvs@cosa.com.

ABSTRACT
Veterinary acupuncture charts were developed based on the concept of transpositional points whereby human acupuncture maps were adapted to animal anatomy. Transpositional acupuncture points have traditionally been placed in specific locations around the horse's coronet and distal limb believed to be the closest approximation to the human distal limb points. Because the horse has a single digit and lacks several structures analogous to the human hand and foot, precisely transposing all of the human digital points is not anatomically possible. To date there is no published research on the effect of acupuncture treatment of the equine distal limb points. This paper presents a modified approach to equine distal limb point selection based on what is known from research on other species about the neuroanatomic method of acupuncture. A rationale is presented for modification of traditional equine ting points as well as additional points around the hoof and distal limb that do not appear in the standard textbooks of equine acupuncture. The anatomy and physiology of the equine foot likely to be affected by acupuncture are briefly reviewed. Modified neuroanatomic points are proposed that may be more accurate as transpositional points. As an example of clinical application, a neuroanatomic approach to acupuncture treatment of equine laminitis is presented.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus