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Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows.

Bosma RH, Kalkers-van de Ven SC, den Boer MM - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The effect of time was measured in a 3x3 Latin square on six cows in one herd.The effect of production factors was analyzed using 108 cows from three herds for two months.The effect of time excludes BL 14R, 16R, 21R, 22R, 30R, 46-02R, 43-01L and 30L, and ST18 bilaterally for diagnostic use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Wageningen University, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands. roel.bosma@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT
This study evaluated the effect of hour and day of measurement, and of production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at 24 acupuncture points (APs). This is a first step in assessing whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming. The APs studied were left (L) and right (R) points of the bladder (BL) and stomach (ST) meridians. The effect of time was measured in a 3x3 Latin square on six cows in one herd. The effect of production factors was analyzed using 108 cows from three herds for two months. The effect of time excludes BL 14R, 16R, 21R, 22R, 30R, 46-02R, 43-01L and 30L, and ST18 bilaterally for diagnostic use. The contribution of parity, age or lactation period to monthly models of BL21R, 18R and 15R, and ST18R exclude these for diagnostic use. Of the remaining APs, BL19R, BL20R and BL46-02L showed stable IVs and are recommended for reference measurements. APs BL14L, BL16L and BL17L are recommended for diagnostics, and BL 16R, 17R, 18R, 23R, 30R, 15L, 20L, 22L and 29L need further study. Factors contributing to the variation in the IV of several APs were: milk robot, number of inseminations, body condition score, days of the preceding lactation, kg milk and kg milk fat of current and preceding month and preceding year, and milk cell count and urea content.

No MeSH data available.


The location of the 24 measured APs (adapted from [8]).
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animals-02-00415-f001: The location of the 24 measured APs (adapted from [8]).

Mentions: The IV was measured with “Itronic” equipment from I-Health® Systems [6]. The equipment used is a version of a device used to check the health of Soviet cosmonauts [7], and is used widely for human healthcare. For use in animals, the tip of the pen probe has been modified to be a trident instead of flat; this modification allows IV measurement without shaving (den Boer and Bosma, non-published data). Shaving may stress the cow and thus affect the IVs. If many APs must be measured, it is also time-consuming. The passive electrode of the measuring device was attached at the proximal end of a foreleg after applying some drops of water-based gel (AB-gel). The device’s software was designed to measure and register the impedance of 24 APs consecutively; i.e., the 12 Ting points on the fingers and the 12 on the toes. We therefore selected 24 points for the experiments, choosing APs that tend to be clean and can be reached without putting instruments and health of practitioners at risk (Figure 1 and Table 1). We excluded APs at the distal limbs, and on the belly of the cow. The selection of the APs was based on information in [1] and [8,9,10,11].


Effect of Time (Within and Between Days), and Dairy Production Factors on the Impedance Value at 24 Acupuncture Points in Dairy Cows.

Bosma RH, Kalkers-van de Ven SC, den Boer MM - Animals (Basel) (2012)

The location of the 24 measured APs (adapted from [8]).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494285&req=5

animals-02-00415-f001: The location of the 24 measured APs (adapted from [8]).
Mentions: The IV was measured with “Itronic” equipment from I-Health® Systems [6]. The equipment used is a version of a device used to check the health of Soviet cosmonauts [7], and is used widely for human healthcare. For use in animals, the tip of the pen probe has been modified to be a trident instead of flat; this modification allows IV measurement without shaving (den Boer and Bosma, non-published data). Shaving may stress the cow and thus affect the IVs. If many APs must be measured, it is also time-consuming. The passive electrode of the measuring device was attached at the proximal end of a foreleg after applying some drops of water-based gel (AB-gel). The device’s software was designed to measure and register the impedance of 24 APs consecutively; i.e., the 12 Ting points on the fingers and the 12 on the toes. We therefore selected 24 points for the experiments, choosing APs that tend to be clean and can be reached without putting instruments and health of practitioners at risk (Figure 1 and Table 1). We excluded APs at the distal limbs, and on the belly of the cow. The selection of the APs was based on information in [1] and [8,9,10,11].

Bottom Line: The effect of time was measured in a 3x3 Latin square on six cows in one herd.The effect of production factors was analyzed using 108 cows from three herds for two months.The effect of time excludes BL 14R, 16R, 21R, 22R, 30R, 46-02R, 43-01L and 30L, and ST18 bilaterally for diagnostic use.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Animal Science, Wageningen University, 6700 AH, Wageningen, The Netherlands. roel.bosma@wur.nl.

ABSTRACT
This study evaluated the effect of hour and day of measurement, and of production factors on the impedance values (IVs) at 24 acupuncture points (APs). This is a first step in assessing whether electro-acupuncture can contribute to reduced antibiotic use in dairy farming. The APs studied were left (L) and right (R) points of the bladder (BL) and stomach (ST) meridians. The effect of time was measured in a 3x3 Latin square on six cows in one herd. The effect of production factors was analyzed using 108 cows from three herds for two months. The effect of time excludes BL 14R, 16R, 21R, 22R, 30R, 46-02R, 43-01L and 30L, and ST18 bilaterally for diagnostic use. The contribution of parity, age or lactation period to monthly models of BL21R, 18R and 15R, and ST18R exclude these for diagnostic use. Of the remaining APs, BL19R, BL20R and BL46-02L showed stable IVs and are recommended for reference measurements. APs BL14L, BL16L and BL17L are recommended for diagnostics, and BL 16R, 17R, 18R, 23R, 30R, 15L, 20L, 22L and 29L need further study. Factors contributing to the variation in the IV of several APs were: milk robot, number of inseminations, body condition score, days of the preceding lactation, kg milk and kg milk fat of current and preceding month and preceding year, and milk cell count and urea content.

No MeSH data available.