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The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia.

Bell MJ, Cullen BR, Eckard RJ - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types.Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites.Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Matt.Bell@unimelb.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO₂-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

No MeSH data available.


Predicted average annual carbon dioxide (kg CO2-eq.) equivalent emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning (kg lwgt) and turnoff of calf live weight at weaning (kg) per hectare at Albany (diamond), Dookie (circle), Vasey (square) and Wagga Wagga (triangle) for the years 1971 to 2000 for cows on pasture (white symbols) or pasture and supplementary feed (black symbols).
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animals-02-00540-f003: Predicted average annual carbon dioxide (kg CO2-eq.) equivalent emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning (kg lwgt) and turnoff of calf live weight at weaning (kg) per hectare at Albany (diamond), Dookie (circle), Vasey (square) and Wagga Wagga (triangle) for the years 1971 to 2000 for cows on pasture (white symbols) or pasture and supplementary feed (black symbols).

Mentions: As was seen for CO2-eq. emissions/ha, the CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight increased (Figure 2 and Figure 3) with supplementary feed being given at Dookie, Vasey and Wagga Wagga as the average live weight of a calf at weaning increased (Table 2) and turnoff of calf live weight at each site increased resulting in more enteric CH4 emissions per kg calf live weight. Figure 3 shows the CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight at Albany showed a slight decline with an increase in productivity with supplementary feed being fed. The use of supplementary feed increased the turnoff of calf live weight at weaning across sites. Due to its higher capacity to carry stock, the phalaris/subclover grazing system at Vasey had the highest predicted total calf live weight at weaning of 66 and 90 kg/ha compared to 60 and 80 kg/ha at Wagga Wagga, 50 and 80 kg/ha at Dookie and 58 and 60 kg/ha at Albany for the pasture or pasture and supplementary feed system, respectively.


The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia.

Bell MJ, Cullen BR, Eckard RJ - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Predicted average annual carbon dioxide (kg CO2-eq.) equivalent emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning (kg lwgt) and turnoff of calf live weight at weaning (kg) per hectare at Albany (diamond), Dookie (circle), Vasey (square) and Wagga Wagga (triangle) for the years 1971 to 2000 for cows on pasture (white symbols) or pasture and supplementary feed (black symbols).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494281&req=5

animals-02-00540-f003: Predicted average annual carbon dioxide (kg CO2-eq.) equivalent emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning (kg lwgt) and turnoff of calf live weight at weaning (kg) per hectare at Albany (diamond), Dookie (circle), Vasey (square) and Wagga Wagga (triangle) for the years 1971 to 2000 for cows on pasture (white symbols) or pasture and supplementary feed (black symbols).
Mentions: As was seen for CO2-eq. emissions/ha, the CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight increased (Figure 2 and Figure 3) with supplementary feed being given at Dookie, Vasey and Wagga Wagga as the average live weight of a calf at weaning increased (Table 2) and turnoff of calf live weight at each site increased resulting in more enteric CH4 emissions per kg calf live weight. Figure 3 shows the CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight at Albany showed a slight decline with an increase in productivity with supplementary feed being fed. The use of supplementary feed increased the turnoff of calf live weight at weaning across sites. Due to its higher capacity to carry stock, the phalaris/subclover grazing system at Vasey had the highest predicted total calf live weight at weaning of 66 and 90 kg/ha compared to 60 and 80 kg/ha at Wagga Wagga, 50 and 80 kg/ha at Dookie and 58 and 60 kg/ha at Albany for the pasture or pasture and supplementary feed system, respectively.

Bottom Line: Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types.Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites.Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Matt.Bell@unimelb.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO₂-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

No MeSH data available.