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The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia.

Bell MJ, Cullen BR, Eckard RJ - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems.Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types.Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Matt.Bell@unimelb.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO₂-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Predicted average annual carbon dioxide (kg CO2-eq.) equivalent emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning (kg lwgt) from all sources (total), enteric fermentation, manure and soil, feed production (pasture, forage and bought-in grain) at Albany, Dookie, Vasey and Wagga Wagga for the years 1971 to 2000 for cows fed a) pasture or b) pasture and supplementary feed. Vertical bars indicate standard deviation for 30-year model runs.
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animals-02-00540-f002: Predicted average annual carbon dioxide (kg CO2-eq.) equivalent emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning (kg lwgt) from all sources (total), enteric fermentation, manure and soil, feed production (pasture, forage and bought-in grain) at Albany, Dookie, Vasey and Wagga Wagga for the years 1971 to 2000 for cows fed a) pasture or b) pasture and supplementary feed. Vertical bars indicate standard deviation for 30-year model runs.

Mentions: Enteric CH4 contributed between 0.75 to 0.93, manure and soil between 0.03 to 0.21, and feed production from 0.02 to 0.06 of total CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning across pasture systems (Figure 2). The low stocking rate of cows at Albany compared to their amount of feed consumed contributed to its higher annual enteric CH4 emissions per kg calf live weight and CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning. Annual CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning averaged 18.9 ± 1.1 and 18.4 ± 1.5 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 at Albany, 10.4 ± 4.3 and 11.6 ± 3.0 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 at Dookie, 11.0 ± 1.8 and 12.5 ± 1.4 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 at Vasey and 10.7 ± 3.8 and 11.9 ± 2.5 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 at Wagga Wagga on pasture or pasture with supplementary feed, respectively.


The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia.

Bell MJ, Cullen BR, Eckard RJ - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Predicted average annual carbon dioxide (kg CO2-eq.) equivalent emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning (kg lwgt) from all sources (total), enteric fermentation, manure and soil, feed production (pasture, forage and bought-in grain) at Albany, Dookie, Vasey and Wagga Wagga for the years 1971 to 2000 for cows fed a) pasture or b) pasture and supplementary feed. Vertical bars indicate standard deviation for 30-year model runs.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494281&req=5

animals-02-00540-f002: Predicted average annual carbon dioxide (kg CO2-eq.) equivalent emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning (kg lwgt) from all sources (total), enteric fermentation, manure and soil, feed production (pasture, forage and bought-in grain) at Albany, Dookie, Vasey and Wagga Wagga for the years 1971 to 2000 for cows fed a) pasture or b) pasture and supplementary feed. Vertical bars indicate standard deviation for 30-year model runs.
Mentions: Enteric CH4 contributed between 0.75 to 0.93, manure and soil between 0.03 to 0.21, and feed production from 0.02 to 0.06 of total CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning across pasture systems (Figure 2). The low stocking rate of cows at Albany compared to their amount of feed consumed contributed to its higher annual enteric CH4 emissions per kg calf live weight and CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning. Annual CO2-eq. emissions per kg calf live weight at weaning averaged 18.9 ± 1.1 and 18.4 ± 1.5 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 at Albany, 10.4 ± 4.3 and 11.6 ± 3.0 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 at Dookie, 11.0 ± 1.8 and 12.5 ± 1.4 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 at Vasey and 10.7 ± 3.8 and 11.9 ± 2.5 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 at Wagga Wagga on pasture or pasture with supplementary feed, respectively.

Bottom Line: A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems.Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types.Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Melbourne School of Land and Environment, University of Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia. Matt.Bell@unimelb.edu.au.

ABSTRACT
A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO₂-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus