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Effects of Severe Floods and Droughts on Wildlife of the Pantanal Wetland (Brazil)-A Review.

Alho CJ, Silva JS - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Bottom Line: The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands.The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation.Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Program on Environment and Regional Development, Anhanguera-Uniderp University, Campo Grande, 79003-010, MS, Brazil. alho@unb.br.

ABSTRACT
Flooding throughout the Pantanal is seasonal. The complex vegetative cover and high seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. A gradient in flood level supports a range of major habitats in a complex mosaic with annual seasonality. The rivers and streams are lined with gallery forests, and other arboreal habitats exist in the more elevated areas. The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands. The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation. However, an inter-annual series of higher or lower rainfalls has caused either severe floods or drastic dry seasons. Large scale climate phenomena such as greenhouse gases, El Niño and La Niña influence the seasonality of floods and droughts in the Pantanal. Knowledge of severe floods and droughts, which characterize natural disasters, is fundamental for wildlife management and nature conservation of the Pantanal. Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals. In addition, human activities are also affected since cattle ranching and ecotourism are economically important in the region, and when seasons with unusual floods or droughts occur, areas with human settlements are impacted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Fluviometric marks recorded on the Paraguay River at Ladário station, and on the Miranda River at Miranda city, for the 2010/2011 hydrological year of the Pantanal.
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animals-02-00591-f001: Fluviometric marks recorded on the Paraguay River at Ladário station, and on the Miranda River at Miranda city, for the 2010/2011 hydrological year of the Pantanal.

Mentions: After receiving the contribution of its tributaries in Brazilian territory, the Paraguay River at Ladário has two flood cycles. The first is influenced by the rivers Aquidauana, Miranda, Negro, and Taquari, with floods in February and March. The second is influenced by the discharge of the upper Paraguay from April to June [5]. Figure 1 shows that this event may be observed for the hydrological years 2010–2011. The tributaries of the Paraguay River that flow east-west through the Pantanal floodplain are influenced directly by rainfall that starts in October. The pluviometric station located in the city of Miranda is within the limit of the transition plateau/floodplain soon after this has received the first rains that influence the overflow of the river banks, inundating the floodplain, characterizing the flood of November through June, and a period of drought from August to October. Usually, the Pantanal drought period regulated by the Paraguay River at the Ladário station goes from March to September, and may exceptionally continue to reach the month of October. The flood season runs from October through February.


Effects of Severe Floods and Droughts on Wildlife of the Pantanal Wetland (Brazil)-A Review.

Alho CJ, Silva JS - Animals (Basel) (2012)

Fluviometric marks recorded on the Paraguay River at Ladário station, and on the Miranda River at Miranda city, for the 2010/2011 hydrological year of the Pantanal.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494280&req=5

animals-02-00591-f001: Fluviometric marks recorded on the Paraguay River at Ladário station, and on the Miranda River at Miranda city, for the 2010/2011 hydrological year of the Pantanal.
Mentions: After receiving the contribution of its tributaries in Brazilian territory, the Paraguay River at Ladário has two flood cycles. The first is influenced by the rivers Aquidauana, Miranda, Negro, and Taquari, with floods in February and March. The second is influenced by the discharge of the upper Paraguay from April to June [5]. Figure 1 shows that this event may be observed for the hydrological years 2010–2011. The tributaries of the Paraguay River that flow east-west through the Pantanal floodplain are influenced directly by rainfall that starts in October. The pluviometric station located in the city of Miranda is within the limit of the transition plateau/floodplain soon after this has received the first rains that influence the overflow of the river banks, inundating the floodplain, characterizing the flood of November through June, and a period of drought from August to October. Usually, the Pantanal drought period regulated by the Paraguay River at the Ladário station goes from March to September, and may exceptionally continue to reach the month of October. The flood season runs from October through February.

Bottom Line: The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands.The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation.Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Graduate Program on Environment and Regional Development, Anhanguera-Uniderp University, Campo Grande, 79003-010, MS, Brazil. alho@unb.br.

ABSTRACT
Flooding throughout the Pantanal is seasonal. The complex vegetative cover and high seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. A gradient in flood level supports a range of major habitats in a complex mosaic with annual seasonality. The rivers and streams are lined with gallery forests, and other arboreal habitats exist in the more elevated areas. The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands. The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation. However, an inter-annual series of higher or lower rainfalls has caused either severe floods or drastic dry seasons. Large scale climate phenomena such as greenhouse gases, El Niño and La Niña influence the seasonality of floods and droughts in the Pantanal. Knowledge of severe floods and droughts, which characterize natural disasters, is fundamental for wildlife management and nature conservation of the Pantanal. Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals. In addition, human activities are also affected since cattle ranching and ecotourism are economically important in the region, and when seasons with unusual floods or droughts occur, areas with human settlements are impacted.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus