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A Systematic Review of Recent Advances in Equine Influenza Vaccination.

Paillot R - Vaccines (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention.The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine.This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU, UK. romain.paillot@aht.org.uk.

ABSTRACT
Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention. Alongside quarantine procedures, vaccination is widely used to prevent or limit spread of the disease. The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine. Several other strategies of vaccination are also evaluated. This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM) and ISCOM-Matrix vaccine, uptake and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation. Purified EIV antigens (e.g., HA and NA) are directly mixed with Quillaja saponin, cholesterol and phospholipids to produce ISCOM-based vaccine (1) or mixed with preformed ISCOM to produce ISCOM-Matrix-based vaccine (2). Exogenous pathway and antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules. The antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex is engulfed in phagosomes (3) and enter the exogenous pathwary of antigen presentation after degradation by proteases into short peptides in acidified endosomes (4). The MHC-class II-peptide complex is recognised by the T cell receptor (TCR) of antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. Cross-presentation of antigen by MHC class I molecules. The antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex could enter the cell through interaction with the cell membrane, phagocytosis, endocytosis, or similar process (5). The antigens are translocated to the cytosol and reach the endogenous pathway of antigen presentation (6). The complex MHC class I-b2m-peptide is recognised by the T cell receptor (TCR) of an antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte.
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vaccines-02-00797-f005: Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM) and ISCOM-Matrix vaccine, uptake and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation. Purified EIV antigens (e.g., HA and NA) are directly mixed with Quillaja saponin, cholesterol and phospholipids to produce ISCOM-based vaccine (1) or mixed with preformed ISCOM to produce ISCOM-Matrix-based vaccine (2). Exogenous pathway and antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules. The antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex is engulfed in phagosomes (3) and enter the exogenous pathwary of antigen presentation after degradation by proteases into short peptides in acidified endosomes (4). The MHC-class II-peptide complex is recognised by the T cell receptor (TCR) of antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. Cross-presentation of antigen by MHC class I molecules. The antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex could enter the cell through interaction with the cell membrane, phagocytosis, endocytosis, or similar process (5). The antigens are translocated to the cytosol and reach the endogenous pathway of antigen presentation (6). The complex MHC class I-b2m-peptide is recognised by the T cell receptor (TCR) of an antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte.

Mentions: The immuno-stimulating complex (ISCOM) technology is based on the particulate ISCOM-Matrix adjuvant, which is composed of phospholipids, cholesterol and Quil-A (Quillaja) saponin (matrix component) [86,87]. As shown in Figure 5, the ISCOM technology regroups the ISCOM-based and ISCOM-Matrix adjuvanted vaccines, which differ in terms of formulation. ISCOM-based vaccines contain hydrophobic antigen and/or membrane proteins that are directly mixed with the matrix component to give stable, self-adjuvanting particles, held together by hydrophobic interactions [88]. ISCOM-Matrix-based vaccine corresponds to the association of already prepared matrix particles with purified antigens. The antigen presentation is believed to be similar after immunisation with ISCOM-based or ISCOM-Matrix vaccines [87,89,90]. Exogenous antigens adjuvanted with ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix are processed by both endogenous and exogenous pathways and presented via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules, respectively [91,92]. The exogenous pathway involves phagocytosis of the antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex by antigen presenting cells (APC). However, the complex is also thought to interact with the cell membrane and subsequently with intracellular lipid membranes [86,90]. ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix structures have been localised within the cytoplasm and vesicular compartments in APC [89,90,93]. The membrane-disrupting properties of the Quil-A saponin is believed to play a role in the antigen escape from endosomes/lysosomes and release into the cytoplasm to enter the endogenous pathway of antigen presentation [86]. The ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix adjuvant is also a powerful immunomodulator that induces the synthesis of pro-inflammatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines [86,88,94] and up-regulates expression of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules in APC [91,95]. These activities remains to be demonstrated in horses. Markers of an acute phase response, with elevated serum amyloid level, were reported after immunisation with the ISCOM-based EI vaccine [96].


A Systematic Review of Recent Advances in Equine Influenza Vaccination.

Paillot R - Vaccines (Basel) (2014)

Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM) and ISCOM-Matrix vaccine, uptake and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation. Purified EIV antigens (e.g., HA and NA) are directly mixed with Quillaja saponin, cholesterol and phospholipids to produce ISCOM-based vaccine (1) or mixed with preformed ISCOM to produce ISCOM-Matrix-based vaccine (2). Exogenous pathway and antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules. The antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex is engulfed in phagosomes (3) and enter the exogenous pathwary of antigen presentation after degradation by proteases into short peptides in acidified endosomes (4). The MHC-class II-peptide complex is recognised by the T cell receptor (TCR) of antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. Cross-presentation of antigen by MHC class I molecules. The antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex could enter the cell through interaction with the cell membrane, phagocytosis, endocytosis, or similar process (5). The antigens are translocated to the cytosol and reach the endogenous pathway of antigen presentation (6). The complex MHC class I-b2m-peptide is recognised by the T cell receptor (TCR) of an antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494246&req=5

vaccines-02-00797-f005: Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM) and ISCOM-Matrix vaccine, uptake and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presentation. Purified EIV antigens (e.g., HA and NA) are directly mixed with Quillaja saponin, cholesterol and phospholipids to produce ISCOM-based vaccine (1) or mixed with preformed ISCOM to produce ISCOM-Matrix-based vaccine (2). Exogenous pathway and antigen presentation by MHC class II molecules. The antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex is engulfed in phagosomes (3) and enter the exogenous pathwary of antigen presentation after degradation by proteases into short peptides in acidified endosomes (4). The MHC-class II-peptide complex is recognised by the T cell receptor (TCR) of antigen-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. Cross-presentation of antigen by MHC class I molecules. The antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex could enter the cell through interaction with the cell membrane, phagocytosis, endocytosis, or similar process (5). The antigens are translocated to the cytosol and reach the endogenous pathway of antigen presentation (6). The complex MHC class I-b2m-peptide is recognised by the T cell receptor (TCR) of an antigen-specific CD8+ T lymphocyte.
Mentions: The immuno-stimulating complex (ISCOM) technology is based on the particulate ISCOM-Matrix adjuvant, which is composed of phospholipids, cholesterol and Quil-A (Quillaja) saponin (matrix component) [86,87]. As shown in Figure 5, the ISCOM technology regroups the ISCOM-based and ISCOM-Matrix adjuvanted vaccines, which differ in terms of formulation. ISCOM-based vaccines contain hydrophobic antigen and/or membrane proteins that are directly mixed with the matrix component to give stable, self-adjuvanting particles, held together by hydrophobic interactions [88]. ISCOM-Matrix-based vaccine corresponds to the association of already prepared matrix particles with purified antigens. The antigen presentation is believed to be similar after immunisation with ISCOM-based or ISCOM-Matrix vaccines [87,89,90]. Exogenous antigens adjuvanted with ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix are processed by both endogenous and exogenous pathways and presented via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I and II molecules, respectively [91,92]. The exogenous pathway involves phagocytosis of the antigen/ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix complex by antigen presenting cells (APC). However, the complex is also thought to interact with the cell membrane and subsequently with intracellular lipid membranes [86,90]. ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix structures have been localised within the cytoplasm and vesicular compartments in APC [89,90,93]. The membrane-disrupting properties of the Quil-A saponin is believed to play a role in the antigen escape from endosomes/lysosomes and release into the cytoplasm to enter the endogenous pathway of antigen presentation [86]. The ISCOM/ISCOM-Matrix adjuvant is also a powerful immunomodulator that induces the synthesis of pro-inflammatory, Th1 and Th2 cytokines [86,88,94] and up-regulates expression of MHC and co-stimulatory molecules in APC [91,95]. These activities remains to be demonstrated in horses. Markers of an acute phase response, with elevated serum amyloid level, were reported after immunisation with the ISCOM-based EI vaccine [96].

Bottom Line: Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention.The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine.This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU, UK. romain.paillot@aht.org.uk.

ABSTRACT
Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention. Alongside quarantine procedures, vaccination is widely used to prevent or limit spread of the disease. The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine. Several other strategies of vaccination are also evaluated. This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus