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A Systematic Review of Recent Advances in Equine Influenza Vaccination.

Paillot R - Vaccines (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention.The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine.This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU, UK. romain.paillot@aht.org.uk.

ABSTRACT
Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention. Alongside quarantine procedures, vaccination is widely used to prevent or limit spread of the disease. The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine. Several other strategies of vaccination are also evaluated. This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Schematic of equine influenza virus (EIV) evolution. All main sub-lineages and EIV strains reported in this review are indicated; (B) Recent World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations from the OIE expert surveillance panel on EI vaccine composition.
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vaccines-02-00797-f001: (A) Schematic of equine influenza virus (EIV) evolution. All main sub-lineages and EIV strains reported in this review are indicated; (B) Recent World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations from the OIE expert surveillance panel on EI vaccine composition.

Mentions: In horses, EIV isolates are classified by their subtype and named on the basis of location and year of isolation. Two different subtypes have been designated based on antigenic properties of the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) envelope glycoproteins. The H7N7 subtype (A/equine/1/Prague/56 as prototype strain) was first identified in Eastern Europe in 1956 [7], but has not been isolated from horses for over 20 years [8,9] and is therefore presumed extinct from horses. Equine influenza H3N8 viruses (A/equine/2/Miami/63 as prototype strain) were first isolated in North America in 1963 [10] and are still circulating [11]. EIV HA molecules undergo natural mutation known as antigenic drift, which confers the virus ability to modify its host receptor cell binding specificity and to evade host immunity. Such a mechanism drives the evolution and natural selection of EIV, and phylogenetic analyses have identified a divergence of the H3N8 subtype in the late 1980s, giving rise to the Eurasian and American lineages [12] (Figure 1). The origin of an evolution bottleneck at the end of 1980s is currently argued and could be due to an increased use of EI vaccines [13], as opposed to a large epidemic (discussed at the 2nd International Symposium on Neglected Influenza Viruses, 7th–8th March 2013, Dublin, Ireland). The American lineage has further diverged into the South American, the Kentucky and the Florida sublineages [14], the latter of which has since divided into two separate clades, designated clade 1 and 2 [15,16]. All of the recently isolated viruses in North America and Europe belong to the Florida clades 1 and 2 sublineages, respectively [16,17]. The evolution of EIV has been the subject of recent review [18,19,20,21].


A Systematic Review of Recent Advances in Equine Influenza Vaccination.

Paillot R - Vaccines (Basel) (2014)

(A) Schematic of equine influenza virus (EIV) evolution. All main sub-lineages and EIV strains reported in this review are indicated; (B) Recent World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations from the OIE expert surveillance panel on EI vaccine composition.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494246&req=5

vaccines-02-00797-f001: (A) Schematic of equine influenza virus (EIV) evolution. All main sub-lineages and EIV strains reported in this review are indicated; (B) Recent World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) recommendations from the OIE expert surveillance panel on EI vaccine composition.
Mentions: In horses, EIV isolates are classified by their subtype and named on the basis of location and year of isolation. Two different subtypes have been designated based on antigenic properties of the haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) envelope glycoproteins. The H7N7 subtype (A/equine/1/Prague/56 as prototype strain) was first identified in Eastern Europe in 1956 [7], but has not been isolated from horses for over 20 years [8,9] and is therefore presumed extinct from horses. Equine influenza H3N8 viruses (A/equine/2/Miami/63 as prototype strain) were first isolated in North America in 1963 [10] and are still circulating [11]. EIV HA molecules undergo natural mutation known as antigenic drift, which confers the virus ability to modify its host receptor cell binding specificity and to evade host immunity. Such a mechanism drives the evolution and natural selection of EIV, and phylogenetic analyses have identified a divergence of the H3N8 subtype in the late 1980s, giving rise to the Eurasian and American lineages [12] (Figure 1). The origin of an evolution bottleneck at the end of 1980s is currently argued and could be due to an increased use of EI vaccines [13], as opposed to a large epidemic (discussed at the 2nd International Symposium on Neglected Influenza Viruses, 7th–8th March 2013, Dublin, Ireland). The American lineage has further diverged into the South American, the Kentucky and the Florida sublineages [14], the latter of which has since divided into two separate clades, designated clade 1 and 2 [15,16]. All of the recently isolated viruses in North America and Europe belong to the Florida clades 1 and 2 sublineages, respectively [16,17]. The evolution of EIV has been the subject of recent review [18,19,20,21].

Bottom Line: Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention.The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine.This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Animal Health Trust, Centre for Preventive Medicine, Lanwades Park, Newmarket, Suffolk CB8 7UU, UK. romain.paillot@aht.org.uk.

ABSTRACT
Equine influenza (EI) is a major respiratory disease of horses, which is still causing substantial outbreaks worldwide despite several decades of surveillance and prevention. Alongside quarantine procedures, vaccination is widely used to prevent or limit spread of the disease. The panel of EI vaccines commercially available is probably one of the most varied, including whole inactivated virus vaccines, Immuno-Stimulating Complex adjuvanted vaccines (ISCOM and ISCOM-Matrix), a live attenuated equine influenza virus (EIV) vaccine and a recombinant poxvirus-vectored vaccine. Several other strategies of vaccination are also evaluated. This systematic review reports the advances of EI vaccines during the last few years as well as some of the mechanisms behind the inefficient or sub-optimal response of horses to vaccination.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus