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Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine.

Sandbulte MR, Spickler AR, Zaabel PK, Roth JA - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd.We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future.We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. sandbult@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Decision tree for selection of IAV-S vaccine strategy to control a specific herd isolate. Due to the diversity and rapid evolution of IAV-S, there are currently no one-size-fits-all vaccine options. Since commercial polyvalent vaccines from different manufacturers contain different strains, diagnostic data (HA sequence and/or serological comparisons) may identify one vaccine that matches a specific field strain better than others. In some cases, data may indicate that commercial polyvalent vaccines offer no close matches to the field strain, suggesting a greater advantage for custom vaccines.
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vaccines-03-00022-f004: Decision tree for selection of IAV-S vaccine strategy to control a specific herd isolate. Due to the diversity and rapid evolution of IAV-S, there are currently no one-size-fits-all vaccine options. Since commercial polyvalent vaccines from different manufacturers contain different strains, diagnostic data (HA sequence and/or serological comparisons) may identify one vaccine that matches a specific field strain better than others. In some cases, data may indicate that commercial polyvalent vaccines offer no close matches to the field strain, suggesting a greater advantage for custom vaccines.

Mentions: It would be beneficial if practitioners had more tools at their disposal to support a best-possible match between endemic IAV-S strains and the existing commercial vaccines. When field isolates are characterized, such as by serology or HA gene sequence, it would be valuable to relate their properties directly with the strains contained in available vaccines (Figure 4). If full-length HA sequences of all vaccine strains were available, one could identify which of those vaccines offers the nearest sequence homology to the field isolate of concern. Presently, such a service is available through the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Major manufacturers of IAV-S vaccines privately share the HA sequences of their proprietary seed viruses with the laboratory. Diagnosticians can then compare HA sequence of a client’s field isolate against the vaccine seed viruses, quantifying the genetic similarity of all of them and identifying the vaccine most likely to provide an antigenic match.


Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine.

Sandbulte MR, Spickler AR, Zaabel PK, Roth JA - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Decision tree for selection of IAV-S vaccine strategy to control a specific herd isolate. Due to the diversity and rapid evolution of IAV-S, there are currently no one-size-fits-all vaccine options. Since commercial polyvalent vaccines from different manufacturers contain different strains, diagnostic data (HA sequence and/or serological comparisons) may identify one vaccine that matches a specific field strain better than others. In some cases, data may indicate that commercial polyvalent vaccines offer no close matches to the field strain, suggesting a greater advantage for custom vaccines.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494241&req=5

vaccines-03-00022-f004: Decision tree for selection of IAV-S vaccine strategy to control a specific herd isolate. Due to the diversity and rapid evolution of IAV-S, there are currently no one-size-fits-all vaccine options. Since commercial polyvalent vaccines from different manufacturers contain different strains, diagnostic data (HA sequence and/or serological comparisons) may identify one vaccine that matches a specific field strain better than others. In some cases, data may indicate that commercial polyvalent vaccines offer no close matches to the field strain, suggesting a greater advantage for custom vaccines.
Mentions: It would be beneficial if practitioners had more tools at their disposal to support a best-possible match between endemic IAV-S strains and the existing commercial vaccines. When field isolates are characterized, such as by serology or HA gene sequence, it would be valuable to relate their properties directly with the strains contained in available vaccines (Figure 4). If full-length HA sequences of all vaccine strains were available, one could identify which of those vaccines offers the nearest sequence homology to the field isolate of concern. Presently, such a service is available through the University of Minnesota Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Major manufacturers of IAV-S vaccines privately share the HA sequences of their proprietary seed viruses with the laboratory. Diagnosticians can then compare HA sequence of a client’s field isolate against the vaccine seed viruses, quantifying the genetic similarity of all of them and identifying the vaccine most likely to provide an antigenic match.

Bottom Line: This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd.We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future.We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. sandbult@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus