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Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine.

Sandbulte MR, Spickler AR, Zaabel PK, Roth JA - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd.We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future.We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. sandbult@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Antigenic drift. Over time, random mutations in HA and NA genes of an influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) strain may cause significant changes in antigenic properties. A swine herd with population immunity to IAV-S has neutralizing antibodies specific to a strain that was previously encountered through infection or vaccination. However, if antigenic drift produces a new variant strain that pre-existing antibodies in the herd are unable to neutralize, the pigs become susceptible to reinfection.
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vaccines-03-00022-f003: Antigenic drift. Over time, random mutations in HA and NA genes of an influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) strain may cause significant changes in antigenic properties. A swine herd with population immunity to IAV-S has neutralizing antibodies specific to a strain that was previously encountered through infection or vaccination. However, if antigenic drift produces a new variant strain that pre-existing antibodies in the herd are unable to neutralize, the pigs become susceptible to reinfection.

Mentions: More gradual changes in the HA and NA, or “antigenic drift”, result from accumulated mutations in the HA or NA proteins of the virus (Figure 3). The influenza A virus polymerase is error-prone, facilitating such mutations. Antigenic drift also allows the virus to evade pre-existing immune responses, although this occurs more slowly than with antigenic shifts.


Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine.

Sandbulte MR, Spickler AR, Zaabel PK, Roth JA - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Antigenic drift. Over time, random mutations in HA and NA genes of an influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) strain may cause significant changes in antigenic properties. A swine herd with population immunity to IAV-S has neutralizing antibodies specific to a strain that was previously encountered through infection or vaccination. However, if antigenic drift produces a new variant strain that pre-existing antibodies in the herd are unable to neutralize, the pigs become susceptible to reinfection.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494241&req=5

vaccines-03-00022-f003: Antigenic drift. Over time, random mutations in HA and NA genes of an influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) strain may cause significant changes in antigenic properties. A swine herd with population immunity to IAV-S has neutralizing antibodies specific to a strain that was previously encountered through infection or vaccination. However, if antigenic drift produces a new variant strain that pre-existing antibodies in the herd are unable to neutralize, the pigs become susceptible to reinfection.
Mentions: More gradual changes in the HA and NA, or “antigenic drift”, result from accumulated mutations in the HA or NA proteins of the virus (Figure 3). The influenza A virus polymerase is error-prone, facilitating such mutations. Antigenic drift also allows the virus to evade pre-existing immune responses, although this occurs more slowly than with antigenic shifts.

Bottom Line: This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd.We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future.We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. sandbult@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus