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Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine.

Sandbulte MR, Spickler AR, Zaabel PK, Roth JA - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Bottom Line: This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd.We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future.We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. sandbult@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Influenza virus infection cycle. Basic structural features of an influenza virus are diagrammed in the top left corner. Infection begins with the binding of hemagglutinin (HA) proteins to receptor molecules on the cell surface. The cycle is completed when new particles, each containing eight RNA segments, bud off from the cell membrane. Neuraminidase (NA) protein cleaves the bonds between HA and sialic acid molecules, allowing new virus to disperse. Boxes labeled A–D indicate points in the cycle that may be inhibited by antibodies or T cells. (Figure used with permission from the New England Journal of Medicine, Linda C. Lambert and Anthony S. Fauci, Influenza Vaccines for the Future, Vol. 363:2039. © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society).
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vaccines-03-00022-f001: Influenza virus infection cycle. Basic structural features of an influenza virus are diagrammed in the top left corner. Infection begins with the binding of hemagglutinin (HA) proteins to receptor molecules on the cell surface. The cycle is completed when new particles, each containing eight RNA segments, bud off from the cell membrane. Neuraminidase (NA) protein cleaves the bonds between HA and sialic acid molecules, allowing new virus to disperse. Boxes labeled A–D indicate points in the cycle that may be inhibited by antibodies or T cells. (Figure used with permission from the New England Journal of Medicine, Linda C. Lambert and Anthony S. Fauci, Influenza Vaccines for the Future, Vol. 363:2039. © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society).

Mentions: The influenza A virus genome consists of eight segments, which encode for at least 12 proteins (Table 1) [15,16]. Three of these proteins—the viral hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix 2 (M2) proteins—are incorporated into the envelope of the virus (Figure 1). The HA and NA are glycoproteins with stem and head structures that protrude from the surface of the virus. The HA is the most abundant of the envelope proteins, up to 80% of the total [15].


Optimal Use of Vaccines for Control of Influenza A Virus in Swine.

Sandbulte MR, Spickler AR, Zaabel PK, Roth JA - Vaccines (Basel) (2015)

Influenza virus infection cycle. Basic structural features of an influenza virus are diagrammed in the top left corner. Infection begins with the binding of hemagglutinin (HA) proteins to receptor molecules on the cell surface. The cycle is completed when new particles, each containing eight RNA segments, bud off from the cell membrane. Neuraminidase (NA) protein cleaves the bonds between HA and sialic acid molecules, allowing new virus to disperse. Boxes labeled A–D indicate points in the cycle that may be inhibited by antibodies or T cells. (Figure used with permission from the New England Journal of Medicine, Linda C. Lambert and Anthony S. Fauci, Influenza Vaccines for the Future, Vol. 363:2039. © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494241&req=5

vaccines-03-00022-f001: Influenza virus infection cycle. Basic structural features of an influenza virus are diagrammed in the top left corner. Infection begins with the binding of hemagglutinin (HA) proteins to receptor molecules on the cell surface. The cycle is completed when new particles, each containing eight RNA segments, bud off from the cell membrane. Neuraminidase (NA) protein cleaves the bonds between HA and sialic acid molecules, allowing new virus to disperse. Boxes labeled A–D indicate points in the cycle that may be inhibited by antibodies or T cells. (Figure used with permission from the New England Journal of Medicine, Linda C. Lambert and Anthony S. Fauci, Influenza Vaccines for the Future, Vol. 363:2039. © 2010 Massachusetts Medical Society).
Mentions: The influenza A virus genome consists of eight segments, which encode for at least 12 proteins (Table 1) [15,16]. Three of these proteins—the viral hemagglutinin (HA), neuraminidase (NA), and matrix 2 (M2) proteins—are incorporated into the envelope of the virus (Figure 1). The HA and NA are glycoproteins with stem and head structures that protrude from the surface of the virus. The HA is the most abundant of the envelope proteins, up to 80% of the total [15].

Bottom Line: This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd.We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future.We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Center for Food Security and Public Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA. sandbult@iastate.edu.

ABSTRACT
Influenza A virus in swine (IAV-S) is one of the most important infectious disease agents of swine in North America. In addition to the economic burden of IAV-S to the swine industry, the zoonotic potential of IAV-S sometimes leads to serious public health concerns. Adjuvanted, inactivated vaccines have been licensed in the United States for over 20 years, and there is also widespread usage of autogenous/custom IAV-S vaccines. Vaccination induces neutralizing antibodies and protection against infection with very similar strains. However, IAV-S strains are so diverse and prone to mutation that these vaccines often have disappointing efficacy in the field. This scientific review was developed to help veterinarians and others to identify the best available IAV-S vaccine for a particular infected herd. We describe key principles of IAV-S structure and replication, protective immunity, currently available vaccines, and vaccine technologies that show promise for the future. We discuss strategies to optimize the use of available IAV-S vaccines, based on information gathered from modern diagnostics and surveillance programs. Improvements in IAV-S immunization strategies, in both the short term and long term, will benefit swine health and productivity and potentially reduce risks to public health.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus