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DNA Virus Vectors for Vaccine Production in Plants: Spotlight on Geminiviruses.

Hefferon KL - Vaccines (Basel) (2014)

Bottom Line: Plants represent a safe, efficacious and inexpensive production platform by which to provide vaccines and other therapeutic proteins to the world's poor.This review discusses several of the state-of-the-art plant expression systems based upon geminiviruses that have been engineered for vaccine production.Advances in the design of several different geminivirus vectors are presented in this review, and examples of vaccines and other biologics generated from each are described.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7, Canada. kathleen.hefferon@utoronto.ca.

ABSTRACT
Plants represent a safe, efficacious and inexpensive production platform by which to provide vaccines and other therapeutic proteins to the world's poor. Plant virus expression vector technology has rapidly become one of the most popular methods to express pharmaceutical proteins in plants. This review discusses several of the state-of-the-art plant expression systems based upon geminiviruses that have been engineered for vaccine production. An overview of the advantages of these small, single-stranded DNA viruses is provided and comparisons are made with other virus expression systems. Advances in the design of several different geminivirus vectors are presented in this review, and examples of vaccines and other biologics generated from each are described.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) Genomic organization of geminiviruses. An example of a mastrevirus is provided. Top; circular version, bottom; linearized version of genome. MP; movement protein, CP; coat protein, LIR and SIR; long and short intergenic regions; (b). Geminivirus expression constructs of past and present. Schematic representations of expression vector constructs based on geminiviruses. Top; example of an earlier expression vector. Middle; vector for co-expression of two different proteins, or complex multimeric protein such as monoclonal antibodies. Bottom; foreign gene is expressed in the form of two exons, and protein expression can only take place upon intron processing. In this case, Rep is expressed from an additional construct. GOI; gene of interest, 35S; 35S CaMV promoter, T; terminator. Hatched box; Rep gene could be present in cis in this construct, or expressed in trans from another construct. (middle construct sourced from [15], bottom construct sourced from [16]).
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vaccines-02-00642-f001: (a) Genomic organization of geminiviruses. An example of a mastrevirus is provided. Top; circular version, bottom; linearized version of genome. MP; movement protein, CP; coat protein, LIR and SIR; long and short intergenic regions; (b). Geminivirus expression constructs of past and present. Schematic representations of expression vector constructs based on geminiviruses. Top; example of an earlier expression vector. Middle; vector for co-expression of two different proteins, or complex multimeric protein such as monoclonal antibodies. Bottom; foreign gene is expressed in the form of two exons, and protein expression can only take place upon intron processing. In this case, Rep is expressed from an additional construct. GOI; gene of interest, 35S; 35S CaMV promoter, T; terminator. Hatched box; Rep gene could be present in cis in this construct, or expressed in trans from another construct. (middle construct sourced from [15], bottom construct sourced from [16]).

Mentions: Geminiviruses, known for their twinned capsid morphology, have been employed as production platforms for the generation of both pharmaceutical and industrial proteins. The small single stranded circular genome ranges from 2.5–3.2 kb in length. This genome is ambisense and both monopartite and bipartite versions of the genome exist. Although the family of geminiviruses is large and includes multiple genera, all geminiviruses in general encode a movement protein, a coat protein and a replication initiator protein which is required for rolling circle replication (RCR) of the virus. The organization of cis-acting elements also possess several features in common throughout geminiviruses. Whether monopartite or bipartite, all geminiviruses contain an intergenic region, which holds a stem loop structure, located within the origin of replication, as well as divergent promoter elements responsible for sense and complementary-sense gene expression (Figure 1a) [5,6].


DNA Virus Vectors for Vaccine Production in Plants: Spotlight on Geminiviruses.

Hefferon KL - Vaccines (Basel) (2014)

(a) Genomic organization of geminiviruses. An example of a mastrevirus is provided. Top; circular version, bottom; linearized version of genome. MP; movement protein, CP; coat protein, LIR and SIR; long and short intergenic regions; (b). Geminivirus expression constructs of past and present. Schematic representations of expression vector constructs based on geminiviruses. Top; example of an earlier expression vector. Middle; vector for co-expression of two different proteins, or complex multimeric protein such as monoclonal antibodies. Bottom; foreign gene is expressed in the form of two exons, and protein expression can only take place upon intron processing. In this case, Rep is expressed from an additional construct. GOI; gene of interest, 35S; 35S CaMV promoter, T; terminator. Hatched box; Rep gene could be present in cis in this construct, or expressed in trans from another construct. (middle construct sourced from [15], bottom construct sourced from [16]).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494219&req=5

vaccines-02-00642-f001: (a) Genomic organization of geminiviruses. An example of a mastrevirus is provided. Top; circular version, bottom; linearized version of genome. MP; movement protein, CP; coat protein, LIR and SIR; long and short intergenic regions; (b). Geminivirus expression constructs of past and present. Schematic representations of expression vector constructs based on geminiviruses. Top; example of an earlier expression vector. Middle; vector for co-expression of two different proteins, or complex multimeric protein such as monoclonal antibodies. Bottom; foreign gene is expressed in the form of two exons, and protein expression can only take place upon intron processing. In this case, Rep is expressed from an additional construct. GOI; gene of interest, 35S; 35S CaMV promoter, T; terminator. Hatched box; Rep gene could be present in cis in this construct, or expressed in trans from another construct. (middle construct sourced from [15], bottom construct sourced from [16]).
Mentions: Geminiviruses, known for their twinned capsid morphology, have been employed as production platforms for the generation of both pharmaceutical and industrial proteins. The small single stranded circular genome ranges from 2.5–3.2 kb in length. This genome is ambisense and both monopartite and bipartite versions of the genome exist. Although the family of geminiviruses is large and includes multiple genera, all geminiviruses in general encode a movement protein, a coat protein and a replication initiator protein which is required for rolling circle replication (RCR) of the virus. The organization of cis-acting elements also possess several features in common throughout geminiviruses. Whether monopartite or bipartite, all geminiviruses contain an intergenic region, which holds a stem loop structure, located within the origin of replication, as well as divergent promoter elements responsible for sense and complementary-sense gene expression (Figure 1a) [5,6].

Bottom Line: Plants represent a safe, efficacious and inexpensive production platform by which to provide vaccines and other therapeutic proteins to the world's poor.This review discusses several of the state-of-the-art plant expression systems based upon geminiviruses that have been engineered for vaccine production.Advances in the design of several different geminivirus vectors are presented in this review, and examples of vaccines and other biologics generated from each are described.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Cell and Systems Biology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2J7, Canada. kathleen.hefferon@utoronto.ca.

ABSTRACT
Plants represent a safe, efficacious and inexpensive production platform by which to provide vaccines and other therapeutic proteins to the world's poor. Plant virus expression vector technology has rapidly become one of the most popular methods to express pharmaceutical proteins in plants. This review discusses several of the state-of-the-art plant expression systems based upon geminiviruses that have been engineered for vaccine production. An overview of the advantages of these small, single-stranded DNA viruses is provided and comparisons are made with other virus expression systems. Advances in the design of several different geminivirus vectors are presented in this review, and examples of vaccines and other biologics generated from each are described.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus