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Compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm: preparation, evaluation, and mechanism of penetration enhancement.

Shen S, Liu SZ, Zhang YS, Du MB, Liang AH, Song LH, Ye ZG - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

Bottom Line: With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm.The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed.Data obtained in this study showed that the application of ethosomal technology to antimalarial cataplasm could improve the transdermal delivery of drug, enhance the efficacy, and facilitate practical application in clinic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Malaria is still a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. The problems of recurrence and drug resistance are increasingly more serious. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel antimalarial agent. The objectives of this study were to construct a novel compound antimalarial transdermal nanosystem-ethosomal cataplasm, to investigate its characteristics and efficiency, and to systematically explore the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of ethosomal cataplasm. Artesunate-loaded ethosomes and febrifugine-loaded ethosomes were prepared, and their characteristics were evaluated. Drug-loaded ethosomes were incorporated in the matrix of cataplasm to form the compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm. With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm. Soon after administration, the ethosomal cataplasm could make a large quantity of antimalarial drug quickly penetrate through skin, then the remaining drug in the ethosomal cataplasm could be steadily released. These characteristics of ethosomal cataplasm are favorable for antimalarial drugs to kill Plasmodium spp. quickly and prevent the resurgence of Plasmodium spp. As expected, the ethosomal cataplasm showed good antimalarial efficiency in this experiment. The negative conversion rates were 100% and the recurrence rates were 0% at all dosages. The mechanism of penetration enhancement of the ethosomal cataplasm was systematically explored using an optics microscope, polarization microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed. Data obtained in this study showed that the application of ethosomal technology to antimalarial cataplasm could improve the transdermal delivery of drug, enhance the efficacy, and facilitate practical application in clinic.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The effect of quantity of phospholipid (S100) on ethosomes (n=3).Abbreviation: EE, entrapment efficiency.
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f2-ijn-10-4239: The effect of quantity of phospholipid (S100) on ethosomes (n=3).Abbreviation: EE, entrapment efficiency.

Mentions: The effects of S100, Tween 80, and cholesterol on the particle size and EE of ethosomes were investigated. Based on the primary formulation, the modifying factor was quantity of S100, and the artesunate-loaded ethosomes were prepared with the abovementioned method “the section Preparation of ethosomes”. With an increase in the quantity of S100, the particle size and EE of ethosomes also increased. But, as the quantity of S100 continued to increase (more than 13.6% [w/w]), the particle size and EE would decrease (Figure 2).


Compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm: preparation, evaluation, and mechanism of penetration enhancement.

Shen S, Liu SZ, Zhang YS, Du MB, Liang AH, Song LH, Ye ZG - Int J Nanomedicine (2015)

The effect of quantity of phospholipid (S100) on ethosomes (n=3).Abbreviation: EE, entrapment efficiency.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494185&req=5

f2-ijn-10-4239: The effect of quantity of phospholipid (S100) on ethosomes (n=3).Abbreviation: EE, entrapment efficiency.
Mentions: The effects of S100, Tween 80, and cholesterol on the particle size and EE of ethosomes were investigated. Based on the primary formulation, the modifying factor was quantity of S100, and the artesunate-loaded ethosomes were prepared with the abovementioned method “the section Preparation of ethosomes”. With an increase in the quantity of S100, the particle size and EE of ethosomes also increased. But, as the quantity of S100 continued to increase (more than 13.6% [w/w]), the particle size and EE would decrease (Figure 2).

Bottom Line: With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm.The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed.Data obtained in this study showed that the application of ethosomal technology to antimalarial cataplasm could improve the transdermal delivery of drug, enhance the efficacy, and facilitate practical application in clinic.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

ABSTRACT
Malaria is still a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. The problems of recurrence and drug resistance are increasingly more serious. Thus, it is necessary to develop a novel antimalarial agent. The objectives of this study were to construct a novel compound antimalarial transdermal nanosystem-ethosomal cataplasm, to investigate its characteristics and efficiency, and to systematically explore the penetration-enhancing mechanisms of ethosomal cataplasm. Artesunate-loaded ethosomes and febrifugine-loaded ethosomes were prepared, and their characteristics were evaluated. Drug-loaded ethosomes were incorporated in the matrix of cataplasm to form the compound antimalarial ethosomal cataplasm. With the help of ethosomal technology, the accumulated permeation quantity of artesunate significantly increased at 8 hours after administration, which was 1.57 times as much as that of conventional cataplasm. Soon after administration, the ethosomal cataplasm could make a large quantity of antimalarial drug quickly penetrate through skin, then the remaining drug in the ethosomal cataplasm could be steadily released. These characteristics of ethosomal cataplasm are favorable for antimalarial drugs to kill Plasmodium spp. quickly and prevent the resurgence of Plasmodium spp. As expected, the ethosomal cataplasm showed good antimalarial efficiency in this experiment. The negative conversion rates were 100% and the recurrence rates were 0% at all dosages. The mechanism of penetration enhancement of the ethosomal cataplasm was systematically explored using an optics microscope, polarization microscope, and transmission electron microscopy. The microstructure, ultrastructure, and birefringent structure in skin were observed. Data obtained in this study showed that the application of ethosomal technology to antimalarial cataplasm could improve the transdermal delivery of drug, enhance the efficacy, and facilitate practical application in clinic.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus