Comparison of the Venom Peptides and Their Expression in Closely Related Conus Species: Insights into Adaptive Post-speciation Evolution of Conus Exogenomes.
Bottom Line: In this study, the sequences and expression levels of conotoxins from several specimens of two closely related worm-hunting species, Conus tribblei and Conus lenavati, were compared through transcriptome analysis.Comparison of the interspecific expression patterns of conopeptides at the superfamily level resulted in the discovery of both conserved as well as species-specific expression patterns, indicating divergence in the regulatory network affecting conotoxin gene expression.Comparison of the transcriptomes of the individual snails revealed that each specimen produces a distinct set of highly expressed conopeptides, reflecting the capability of individual snails to fine-tune the composition of their venoms.
Affiliation: Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines-Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Most (75) of the identified conopeptide precursors in C. tribblei were found in all specimens, but some sequences were observed in either one or two individuals only (fig. 7a and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Similarly, although 34 superfamilies were identified in all specimens of C. tribblei, a few superfamilies were expressed in only one or two individuals (fig. 7a and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Interestingly, only less than half of the identified conopeptides in lenavati conopeptide data set were expressed in all three specimens (fig. 7b and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Specimen lena3 expressed 54 more conopeptides than the other two individuals (fig. 7b and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). In addition, although 29 superfamilies were identified in all three individuals of C. lenavati, 7 superfamilies including A, C, I3, S and SF-05, SF-mi2, and SF-mi4 groups were expressed only in specimen lena3. Moreover, the number of orthologous conopeptide genes with identical mature regions among the individuals of C. tribblei and C. lenavati varied from 12 to 16 (fig. 7c).Fig. 7.—
Affiliation: Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines-Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.