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Comparison of the Venom Peptides and Their Expression in Closely Related Conus Species: Insights into Adaptive Post-speciation Evolution of Conus Exogenomes.

Barghi N, Concepcion GP, Olivera BM, Lluisma AO - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study, the sequences and expression levels of conotoxins from several specimens of two closely related worm-hunting species, Conus tribblei and Conus lenavati, were compared through transcriptome analysis.Comparison of the interspecific expression patterns of conopeptides at the superfamily level resulted in the discovery of both conserved as well as species-specific expression patterns, indicating divergence in the regulatory network affecting conotoxin gene expression.Comparison of the transcriptomes of the individual snails revealed that each specimen produces a distinct set of highly expressed conopeptides, reflecting the capability of individual snails to fine-tune the composition of their venoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines-Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.

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Shared and distinct conopeptides and gene superfamilies for specimens of (a) C. tribblei and (b) C. lenavati, (c) the number of identical conopeptide (considering only the mature regions) among the specimens of C. tribblei and C. lenavati. The total number of conopeptides in each specimen is shown in parenthesis. The superfamilies that are found in only one or two specimens are shown in box. The abbreviations of superfamily names are noted in figure 2. The number of identical conopeptides between a pair of specimens is shown in each diamond. To find the diamond corresponding to one pair of specimens, the lines extended from the dark boxes containing the specimen’s name should be followed. The diamond, in which the columns leading from a pair of individuals intersect, shows the number of identical mature regions. For example, the diamond at the intersection of the two red arrows corresponds to trib1 and lena3. The phylogenetic relationship of the specimens shown here is not based on the actual Bayesian tree. The intensity of the colors of the diamonds corresponds to the number of identical conopeptides.
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evv109-F7: Shared and distinct conopeptides and gene superfamilies for specimens of (a) C. tribblei and (b) C. lenavati, (c) the number of identical conopeptide (considering only the mature regions) among the specimens of C. tribblei and C. lenavati. The total number of conopeptides in each specimen is shown in parenthesis. The superfamilies that are found in only one or two specimens are shown in box. The abbreviations of superfamily names are noted in figure 2. The number of identical conopeptides between a pair of specimens is shown in each diamond. To find the diamond corresponding to one pair of specimens, the lines extended from the dark boxes containing the specimen’s name should be followed. The diamond, in which the columns leading from a pair of individuals intersect, shows the number of identical mature regions. For example, the diamond at the intersection of the two red arrows corresponds to trib1 and lena3. The phylogenetic relationship of the specimens shown here is not based on the actual Bayesian tree. The intensity of the colors of the diamonds corresponds to the number of identical conopeptides.

Mentions: Most (75) of the identified conopeptide precursors in C. tribblei were found in all specimens, but some sequences were observed in either one or two individuals only (fig. 7a and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Similarly, although 34 superfamilies were identified in all specimens of C. tribblei, a few superfamilies were expressed in only one or two individuals (fig. 7a and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Interestingly, only less than half of the identified conopeptides in lenavati conopeptide data set were expressed in all three specimens (fig. 7b and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Specimen lena3 expressed 54 more conopeptides than the other two individuals (fig. 7b and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). In addition, although 29 superfamilies were identified in all three individuals of C. lenavati, 7 superfamilies including A, C, I3, S and SF-05, SF-mi2, and SF-mi4 groups were expressed only in specimen lena3. Moreover, the number of orthologous conopeptide genes with identical mature regions among the individuals of C. tribblei and C. lenavati varied from 12 to 16 (fig. 7c).Fig. 7.—


Comparison of the Venom Peptides and Their Expression in Closely Related Conus Species: Insights into Adaptive Post-speciation Evolution of Conus Exogenomes.

Barghi N, Concepcion GP, Olivera BM, Lluisma AO - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Shared and distinct conopeptides and gene superfamilies for specimens of (a) C. tribblei and (b) C. lenavati, (c) the number of identical conopeptide (considering only the mature regions) among the specimens of C. tribblei and C. lenavati. The total number of conopeptides in each specimen is shown in parenthesis. The superfamilies that are found in only one or two specimens are shown in box. The abbreviations of superfamily names are noted in figure 2. The number of identical conopeptides between a pair of specimens is shown in each diamond. To find the diamond corresponding to one pair of specimens, the lines extended from the dark boxes containing the specimen’s name should be followed. The diamond, in which the columns leading from a pair of individuals intersect, shows the number of identical mature regions. For example, the diamond at the intersection of the two red arrows corresponds to trib1 and lena3. The phylogenetic relationship of the specimens shown here is not based on the actual Bayesian tree. The intensity of the colors of the diamonds corresponds to the number of identical conopeptides.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494072&req=5

evv109-F7: Shared and distinct conopeptides and gene superfamilies for specimens of (a) C. tribblei and (b) C. lenavati, (c) the number of identical conopeptide (considering only the mature regions) among the specimens of C. tribblei and C. lenavati. The total number of conopeptides in each specimen is shown in parenthesis. The superfamilies that are found in only one or two specimens are shown in box. The abbreviations of superfamily names are noted in figure 2. The number of identical conopeptides between a pair of specimens is shown in each diamond. To find the diamond corresponding to one pair of specimens, the lines extended from the dark boxes containing the specimen’s name should be followed. The diamond, in which the columns leading from a pair of individuals intersect, shows the number of identical mature regions. For example, the diamond at the intersection of the two red arrows corresponds to trib1 and lena3. The phylogenetic relationship of the specimens shown here is not based on the actual Bayesian tree. The intensity of the colors of the diamonds corresponds to the number of identical conopeptides.
Mentions: Most (75) of the identified conopeptide precursors in C. tribblei were found in all specimens, but some sequences were observed in either one or two individuals only (fig. 7a and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Similarly, although 34 superfamilies were identified in all specimens of C. tribblei, a few superfamilies were expressed in only one or two individuals (fig. 7a and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Interestingly, only less than half of the identified conopeptides in lenavati conopeptide data set were expressed in all three specimens (fig. 7b and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). Specimen lena3 expressed 54 more conopeptides than the other two individuals (fig. 7b and supplementary table S6, Supplementary Material online). In addition, although 29 superfamilies were identified in all three individuals of C. lenavati, 7 superfamilies including A, C, I3, S and SF-05, SF-mi2, and SF-mi4 groups were expressed only in specimen lena3. Moreover, the number of orthologous conopeptide genes with identical mature regions among the individuals of C. tribblei and C. lenavati varied from 12 to 16 (fig. 7c).Fig. 7.—

Bottom Line: In this study, the sequences and expression levels of conotoxins from several specimens of two closely related worm-hunting species, Conus tribblei and Conus lenavati, were compared through transcriptome analysis.Comparison of the interspecific expression patterns of conopeptides at the superfamily level resulted in the discovery of both conserved as well as species-specific expression patterns, indicating divergence in the regulatory network affecting conotoxin gene expression.Comparison of the transcriptomes of the individual snails revealed that each specimen produces a distinct set of highly expressed conopeptides, reflecting the capability of individual snails to fine-tune the composition of their venoms.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Marine Science Institute, University of the Philippines-Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus