What does it take to evolve an enhancer? A simulation-based study of factors influencing the emergence of combinatorial regulation.
Bottom Line: There is widespread interest today in understanding enhancers, which are regulatory elements typically harboring several transcription factor binding sites and mediating the combinatorial effect of transcription factors on gene expression.We found the time-to-evolve to range between 0.5 and 10 Myr, and to vary greatly with the target expression pattern, complexity of the real enhancer known to encode that pattern, and the strength of input from specific transcription factors.Our simulations also revealed that certain features of an enhancer might evolve not due to their biological function but as aids to the evolutionary process itself.
Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.Show MeSH
Mentions: Repeat the experiment to determine median time-to-evolve per CRM using the baseline model as the fitness function, but targeting the merged expression pattern. This is only done for the 28 CRMs shown in figure 1.
Affiliation: Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.