Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.
Bottom Line: Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae.Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms.This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution.
Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.Show MeSH
Mentions: Putative Terebridae homologs to conopressin/conophysin peptides are referred to as terepressin/terephysin peptides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of these transcripts indicates that the two Terebridae conopressin/conophysin-like transcripts cluster together in a well-supported clade that is sister group to another strongly supported clade, which includes C. geographus and Conus radiatus sequences (fig. 8). Moreover, the two terepressin/terephysin transcripts from Tr. anilis (anilis_comp44965_c5_seq1_1) and Te. subulata (subulata_comp99487_c0_seq1_1), group together with all other mollusk and annelid sequences incorporated in the analysis, in a well-supported Lophotrochozoan clade that is sister to another strongly supported clade including all the Ecdysozoan sequences (fig. 8). The phylogenetic position of the putative terepressin/terephysins indicates that both transcripts are conopressin/conophysin orthologs.Fig. 8.—
Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.