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Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.

Gorson J, Ramrattan G, Verdes A, Wright EM, Kantor Y, Rajaram Srinivasan R, Musunuri R, Packer D, Albano G, Qiu WG, Holford M - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae.Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms.This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

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Conopressin/conophysin phylogeny. Phylogenetic reconstruction of conopressin/conophysin using sequences from representatives across the Metazoa and putative terepressin/terephysins from Tr. anilis and Te. subulata. Tree generated under ML optimality criteria with JTT + I + G and 1,000 pseudoreplicates. Bayesian analysis with four Markov chains of 10,000,000 generations each, yielded same topology. Bootstrap values (≥70) and posterior probabilities (≥0.90) are shown below each supported node (bs/pp). Terebridae sequences are highlighted in red and clades representing major phyla are indicated by colored vertical bars and closed circles.
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evv104-F8: Conopressin/conophysin phylogeny. Phylogenetic reconstruction of conopressin/conophysin using sequences from representatives across the Metazoa and putative terepressin/terephysins from Tr. anilis and Te. subulata. Tree generated under ML optimality criteria with JTT + I + G and 1,000 pseudoreplicates. Bayesian analysis with four Markov chains of 10,000,000 generations each, yielded same topology. Bootstrap values (≥70) and posterior probabilities (≥0.90) are shown below each supported node (bs/pp). Terebridae sequences are highlighted in red and clades representing major phyla are indicated by colored vertical bars and closed circles.

Mentions: Putative Terebridae homologs to conopressin/conophysin peptides are referred to as terepressin/terephysin peptides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of these transcripts indicates that the two Terebridae conopressin/conophysin-like transcripts cluster together in a well-supported clade that is sister group to another strongly supported clade, which includes C. geographus and Conus radiatus sequences (fig. 8). Moreover, the two terepressin/terephysin transcripts from Tr. anilis (anilis_comp44965_c5_seq1_1) and Te. subulata (subulata_comp99487_c0_seq1_1), group together with all other mollusk and annelid sequences incorporated in the analysis, in a well-supported Lophotrochozoan clade that is sister to another strongly supported clade including all the Ecdysozoan sequences (fig. 8). The phylogenetic position of the putative terepressin/terephysins indicates that both transcripts are conopressin/conophysin orthologs.Fig. 8.—


Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.

Gorson J, Ramrattan G, Verdes A, Wright EM, Kantor Y, Rajaram Srinivasan R, Musunuri R, Packer D, Albano G, Qiu WG, Holford M - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Conopressin/conophysin phylogeny. Phylogenetic reconstruction of conopressin/conophysin using sequences from representatives across the Metazoa and putative terepressin/terephysins from Tr. anilis and Te. subulata. Tree generated under ML optimality criteria with JTT + I + G and 1,000 pseudoreplicates. Bayesian analysis with four Markov chains of 10,000,000 generations each, yielded same topology. Bootstrap values (≥70) and posterior probabilities (≥0.90) are shown below each supported node (bs/pp). Terebridae sequences are highlighted in red and clades representing major phyla are indicated by colored vertical bars and closed circles.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494067&req=5

evv104-F8: Conopressin/conophysin phylogeny. Phylogenetic reconstruction of conopressin/conophysin using sequences from representatives across the Metazoa and putative terepressin/terephysins from Tr. anilis and Te. subulata. Tree generated under ML optimality criteria with JTT + I + G and 1,000 pseudoreplicates. Bayesian analysis with four Markov chains of 10,000,000 generations each, yielded same topology. Bootstrap values (≥70) and posterior probabilities (≥0.90) are shown below each supported node (bs/pp). Terebridae sequences are highlighted in red and clades representing major phyla are indicated by colored vertical bars and closed circles.
Mentions: Putative Terebridae homologs to conopressin/conophysin peptides are referred to as terepressin/terephysin peptides, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of these transcripts indicates that the two Terebridae conopressin/conophysin-like transcripts cluster together in a well-supported clade that is sister group to another strongly supported clade, which includes C. geographus and Conus radiatus sequences (fig. 8). Moreover, the two terepressin/terephysin transcripts from Tr. anilis (anilis_comp44965_c5_seq1_1) and Te. subulata (subulata_comp99487_c0_seq1_1), group together with all other mollusk and annelid sequences incorporated in the analysis, in a well-supported Lophotrochozoan clade that is sister to another strongly supported clade including all the Ecdysozoan sequences (fig. 8). The phylogenetic position of the putative terepressin/terephysins indicates that both transcripts are conopressin/conophysin orthologs.Fig. 8.—

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae.Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms.This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Show MeSH