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Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.

Gorson J, Ramrattan G, Verdes A, Wright EM, Kantor Y, Rajaram Srinivasan R, Musunuri R, Packer D, Albano G, Qiu WG, Holford M - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae.Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms.This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

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Teretoxin gene superfamilies. (A) Circular phylogeny of terebrid gene superfamilies (midpoint root) obtained from MUSCLE alignment of teretoxin signal sequences under ML criteria with JTT + G and 1,000 pseudoreplicates. Clades highlighted in red have strong support values but only those that meet additional criteria (see details in text) are designated as teretoxin superfamilies. Inner ring shows superfamily name and outer ring Cys framework of the superfamily. (B) Sequence alignment of representative teretoxin superfamilies and their associated frameworks. Note that superfamily TC includes teretoxins with Cys framework XXII (top) and two novel frameworks (bottom). Also, superfamily TM shares significant sequence identity with the H superfamily of conotoxins (included as an example Mr6.23 from C. marmoreus) Tan, Tr. anilis; Tsu, Te. subulata; Tar, Te. argosyia; Tgu, Te. guttata.
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evv104-F6: Teretoxin gene superfamilies. (A) Circular phylogeny of terebrid gene superfamilies (midpoint root) obtained from MUSCLE alignment of teretoxin signal sequences under ML criteria with JTT + G and 1,000 pseudoreplicates. Clades highlighted in red have strong support values but only those that meet additional criteria (see details in text) are designated as teretoxin superfamilies. Inner ring shows superfamily name and outer ring Cys framework of the superfamily. (B) Sequence alignment of representative teretoxin superfamilies and their associated frameworks. Note that superfamily TC includes teretoxins with Cys framework XXII (top) and two novel frameworks (bottom). Also, superfamily TM shares significant sequence identity with the H superfamily of conotoxins (included as an example Mr6.23 from C. marmoreus) Tan, Tr. anilis; Tsu, Te. subulata; Tar, Te. argosyia; Tgu, Te. guttata.

Mentions: The high sequence similarity of conotoxin precursor regions has led to the grouping of conotoxins into gene superfamilies based on their consensus signal sequence which can provide clues to the evolutionary relationships of conopeptides (Kaas et al. 2010; Robinson and Norton 2014). Using a similar mechanism, we have identified the first, to our knowledge, teretoxin gene superfamilies for the Terebridae (fig. 6).Fig. 6.—


Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.

Gorson J, Ramrattan G, Verdes A, Wright EM, Kantor Y, Rajaram Srinivasan R, Musunuri R, Packer D, Albano G, Qiu WG, Holford M - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Teretoxin gene superfamilies. (A) Circular phylogeny of terebrid gene superfamilies (midpoint root) obtained from MUSCLE alignment of teretoxin signal sequences under ML criteria with JTT + G and 1,000 pseudoreplicates. Clades highlighted in red have strong support values but only those that meet additional criteria (see details in text) are designated as teretoxin superfamilies. Inner ring shows superfamily name and outer ring Cys framework of the superfamily. (B) Sequence alignment of representative teretoxin superfamilies and their associated frameworks. Note that superfamily TC includes teretoxins with Cys framework XXII (top) and two novel frameworks (bottom). Also, superfamily TM shares significant sequence identity with the H superfamily of conotoxins (included as an example Mr6.23 from C. marmoreus) Tan, Tr. anilis; Tsu, Te. subulata; Tar, Te. argosyia; Tgu, Te. guttata.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494067&req=5

evv104-F6: Teretoxin gene superfamilies. (A) Circular phylogeny of terebrid gene superfamilies (midpoint root) obtained from MUSCLE alignment of teretoxin signal sequences under ML criteria with JTT + G and 1,000 pseudoreplicates. Clades highlighted in red have strong support values but only those that meet additional criteria (see details in text) are designated as teretoxin superfamilies. Inner ring shows superfamily name and outer ring Cys framework of the superfamily. (B) Sequence alignment of representative teretoxin superfamilies and their associated frameworks. Note that superfamily TC includes teretoxins with Cys framework XXII (top) and two novel frameworks (bottom). Also, superfamily TM shares significant sequence identity with the H superfamily of conotoxins (included as an example Mr6.23 from C. marmoreus) Tan, Tr. anilis; Tsu, Te. subulata; Tar, Te. argosyia; Tgu, Te. guttata.
Mentions: The high sequence similarity of conotoxin precursor regions has led to the grouping of conotoxins into gene superfamilies based on their consensus signal sequence which can provide clues to the evolutionary relationships of conopeptides (Kaas et al. 2010; Robinson and Norton 2014). Using a similar mechanism, we have identified the first, to our knowledge, teretoxin gene superfamilies for the Terebridae (fig. 6).Fig. 6.—

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae.Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms.This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Show MeSH
Related in: MedlinePlus