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Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.

Gorson J, Ramrattan G, Verdes A, Wright EM, Kantor Y, Rajaram Srinivasan R, Musunuri R, Packer D, Albano G, Qiu WG, Holford M - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae.Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms.This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

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Representative BLAST alignments of T. anilis and Te. subulata teretoxin transcripts. Blue indicates the signal sequence, pink the proregion, and yellow the cysteines. Roman numerals on the left indicate the corresponding cysteine framework assigned to each transcript. (A) Example alignments displaying homology of teretoxins to the top conotoxin analog BLAST hit. There is conservation of Cys patterns in mature peptide toxins between teretoxins and conotoxins. (B) PXY (Pro-X-Tyr), where X can be any intervening residue is a conserved amino acid motif found in a majority of VI/VII teretoxin transcripts. PXY motif underlined in red. (C) Tan14.1 is the only putative teretoxin identified displaying a high degree of sequence identity to a conotoxin (asXIVa).
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evv104-F5: Representative BLAST alignments of T. anilis and Te. subulata teretoxin transcripts. Blue indicates the signal sequence, pink the proregion, and yellow the cysteines. Roman numerals on the left indicate the corresponding cysteine framework assigned to each transcript. (A) Example alignments displaying homology of teretoxins to the top conotoxin analog BLAST hit. There is conservation of Cys patterns in mature peptide toxins between teretoxins and conotoxins. (B) PXY (Pro-X-Tyr), where X can be any intervening residue is a conserved amino acid motif found in a majority of VI/VII teretoxin transcripts. PXY motif underlined in red. (C) Tan14.1 is the only putative teretoxin identified displaying a high degree of sequence identity to a conotoxin (asXIVa).

Mentions: The most prevalent teretoxin transcripts identified in Tr. anilis and Te. subulata assembled sequences fall into four different Cys frameworks, VI/VII, VIII, IX, and XXII, of varying number and pattern (fig. 4B). Even though the number of Cys frameworks varies between Tr. anilis and Te. subulata, comparative analysis of the types of Cys frameworks highlight strong similarities between the two venoms. Representative alignments of teretoxin transcripts of selected Cys frameworks found in Tr. anilis and Te. subulata transcriptomes along with their closest BLAST hit are illustrated in figure 5. For the alignments shown, Cys frameworks are conserved between teretoxins and conotoxins; however, the intervening residues are largely variable, again supporting the claim that teretoxins may have molecular functions distinct from conotoxins (fig. 5A).Fig. 5.—


Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.

Gorson J, Ramrattan G, Verdes A, Wright EM, Kantor Y, Rajaram Srinivasan R, Musunuri R, Packer D, Albano G, Qiu WG, Holford M - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Representative BLAST alignments of T. anilis and Te. subulata teretoxin transcripts. Blue indicates the signal sequence, pink the proregion, and yellow the cysteines. Roman numerals on the left indicate the corresponding cysteine framework assigned to each transcript. (A) Example alignments displaying homology of teretoxins to the top conotoxin analog BLAST hit. There is conservation of Cys patterns in mature peptide toxins between teretoxins and conotoxins. (B) PXY (Pro-X-Tyr), where X can be any intervening residue is a conserved amino acid motif found in a majority of VI/VII teretoxin transcripts. PXY motif underlined in red. (C) Tan14.1 is the only putative teretoxin identified displaying a high degree of sequence identity to a conotoxin (asXIVa).
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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evv104-F5: Representative BLAST alignments of T. anilis and Te. subulata teretoxin transcripts. Blue indicates the signal sequence, pink the proregion, and yellow the cysteines. Roman numerals on the left indicate the corresponding cysteine framework assigned to each transcript. (A) Example alignments displaying homology of teretoxins to the top conotoxin analog BLAST hit. There is conservation of Cys patterns in mature peptide toxins between teretoxins and conotoxins. (B) PXY (Pro-X-Tyr), where X can be any intervening residue is a conserved amino acid motif found in a majority of VI/VII teretoxin transcripts. PXY motif underlined in red. (C) Tan14.1 is the only putative teretoxin identified displaying a high degree of sequence identity to a conotoxin (asXIVa).
Mentions: The most prevalent teretoxin transcripts identified in Tr. anilis and Te. subulata assembled sequences fall into four different Cys frameworks, VI/VII, VIII, IX, and XXII, of varying number and pattern (fig. 4B). Even though the number of Cys frameworks varies between Tr. anilis and Te. subulata, comparative analysis of the types of Cys frameworks highlight strong similarities between the two venoms. Representative alignments of teretoxin transcripts of selected Cys frameworks found in Tr. anilis and Te. subulata transcriptomes along with their closest BLAST hit are illustrated in figure 5. For the alignments shown, Cys frameworks are conserved between teretoxins and conotoxins; however, the intervening residues are largely variable, again supporting the claim that teretoxins may have molecular functions distinct from conotoxins (fig. 5A).Fig. 5.—

Bottom Line: Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae.Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms.This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.

Show MeSH