Molecular Diversity and Gene Evolution of the Venom Arsenal of Terebridae Predatory Marine Snails.
Bottom Line: Phylogenetic methodology was used to identify 14 teretoxin gene superfamilies for the first time, 13 of which are unique to the Terebridae.Additionally, basic local algorithm search tool homology-based searches to venom-related genes and posttranslational modification enzymes identified a convergence of certain venom proteins, such as actinoporin, commonly found in venoms.This research provides novel insights into venom evolution and recruitment in Conoidean predatory marine snails and identifies a plethora of terebrid venom peptides that can be used to investigate fundamental questions pertaining to gene evolution.
Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Four actinoporin-like transcripts, referred to as tereporins were also identified from the transcriptomes of Tr. anilis and Te. subulata (subulata_comp82089_c0_seq1, subulata_comp86348_c1_seq1, subulata_comp30976_c0_seq2, subulata_comp30976_c0_seq1; fig. 10). Actinoporins are highly conserved pore-forming cytolytic toxins that lack Cys residues and are ubiquitous within sea anemones (Macek 1992; Anderluh and Maček 2002; García-Ortega et al. 2011; von Reumont et al. 2014), but have also been isolated from the venoms of other organisms such as mollusks (Shiomi et al. 2002), annelids (von Reumont et al. 2014) and chordates (Warren et al. 2008). It has been suggested that they have active roles in predation, defense and digestion and are lethal to mollusks, crustaceans, fish, and small mammals (Giese et al. 1996; García et al. 2009; García-Ortega et al. 2011; von Reumont et al. 2014). The toxic activity of actinoporin involves the formation of pores within biological membranes that result in a colloid-osmotic shock leading to cell death (García-Ortega et al. 2011). A phylogenetic analysis was conducted including actinoporin sequences from representatives across the Metazoa, with a special focus on taxa closely related to the Terebridae, such as members of the Lophotrochozoa (Bouchet et al. 2011; fig. 10). The four Terebridae actinoporin-like transcripts cluster together in a strongly supported clade and are the sister group of another well-supported clade that includes actinoporin-like sequences from C. geographus and C. radiatus. The phylogenetic reconstruction of actinoporin sequences including the new tereporin transcripts supports the orthology predictions for these putative teretoxins.Fig. 10.—
Affiliation: Hunter College and The Graduate Center, City University of New York Invertebrate Zoology, Sackler Institute for Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York.