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Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants.

Chang Y, Wang S, Sekimoto S, Aerts AL, Choi C, Clum A, LaButti KM, Lindquist EA, Yee Ngan C, Ohm RA, Salamov AA, Grigoriev IV, Spatafora JW, Berbee ML - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Bottom Line: Indicating functional and sequence similarity, Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture.Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodya provide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage.This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia niuerchang@gmail.com.

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Chronogram showing the effect on fungal ages of assuming that Chytridiomycota diverged from its sister clade only after pectin evolved in plant cell walls, some 750 Ma. Pectinase gene expansions were concentrated on branches leading to node 1, which represents the most recent common ancestor of Chytridiomycota and terrestrial fungi, and to node 2, representing the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina. At these branches, the letters and numbers before a colon designate a pectinase family in which gene duplications mapped to the branch, followed by the number of duplication (D) events estimated from the Notung-rearranged analysis and then from the Notung-bootstrap analysis. The shaded area shows the estimated age of origin of land plants by recent studies (Steemans et al. 2009; Rubinstein et al. 2010).
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evv090-F3: Chronogram showing the effect on fungal ages of assuming that Chytridiomycota diverged from its sister clade only after pectin evolved in plant cell walls, some 750 Ma. Pectinase gene expansions were concentrated on branches leading to node 1, which represents the most recent common ancestor of Chytridiomycota and terrestrial fungi, and to node 2, representing the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina. At these branches, the letters and numbers before a colon designate a pectinase family in which gene duplications mapped to the branch, followed by the number of duplication (D) events estimated from the Notung-rearranged analysis and then from the Notung-bootstrap analysis. The shaded area shows the estimated age of origin of land plants by recent studies (Steemans et al. 2009; Rubinstein et al. 2010).

Mentions: We inferred that the most recent common ancestor of all fungi possessed one or more copies of pectinases in seven gene families (table 1). Among the fungi, duplication events were concentrated in the common ancestor of Chytridiomycota and the terrestrial fungi (the clade including zygomycota I, zygomycota II, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota) and in the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina (figs. 2 and 3). Supporting the finding that at least some of its pectinases are functional, G. prolifera (Chytridiomycota) grew significantly faster on media supplemented with pectic sugars than on unsupplemented, low carbon media (supplementary table S7, Supplementary Material online). As expected, A. niger (Ascomycota) also grew more quickly with pectic sugar supplements.Fig. 2.—


Phylogenomic Analyses Indicate that Early Fungi Evolved Digesting Cell Walls of Algal Ancestors of Land Plants.

Chang Y, Wang S, Sekimoto S, Aerts AL, Choi C, Clum A, LaButti KM, Lindquist EA, Yee Ngan C, Ohm RA, Salamov AA, Grigoriev IV, Spatafora JW, Berbee ML - Genome Biol Evol (2015)

Chronogram showing the effect on fungal ages of assuming that Chytridiomycota diverged from its sister clade only after pectin evolved in plant cell walls, some 750 Ma. Pectinase gene expansions were concentrated on branches leading to node 1, which represents the most recent common ancestor of Chytridiomycota and terrestrial fungi, and to node 2, representing the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina. At these branches, the letters and numbers before a colon designate a pectinase family in which gene duplications mapped to the branch, followed by the number of duplication (D) events estimated from the Notung-rearranged analysis and then from the Notung-bootstrap analysis. The shaded area shows the estimated age of origin of land plants by recent studies (Steemans et al. 2009; Rubinstein et al. 2010).
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494064&req=5

evv090-F3: Chronogram showing the effect on fungal ages of assuming that Chytridiomycota diverged from its sister clade only after pectin evolved in plant cell walls, some 750 Ma. Pectinase gene expansions were concentrated on branches leading to node 1, which represents the most recent common ancestor of Chytridiomycota and terrestrial fungi, and to node 2, representing the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina. At these branches, the letters and numbers before a colon designate a pectinase family in which gene duplications mapped to the branch, followed by the number of duplication (D) events estimated from the Notung-rearranged analysis and then from the Notung-bootstrap analysis. The shaded area shows the estimated age of origin of land plants by recent studies (Steemans et al. 2009; Rubinstein et al. 2010).
Mentions: We inferred that the most recent common ancestor of all fungi possessed one or more copies of pectinases in seven gene families (table 1). Among the fungi, duplication events were concentrated in the common ancestor of Chytridiomycota and the terrestrial fungi (the clade including zygomycota I, zygomycota II, Ascomycota, and Basidiomycota) and in the common ancestor of Pezizomycotina (figs. 2 and 3). Supporting the finding that at least some of its pectinases are functional, G. prolifera (Chytridiomycota) grew significantly faster on media supplemented with pectic sugars than on unsupplemented, low carbon media (supplementary table S7, Supplementary Material online). As expected, A. niger (Ascomycota) also grew more quickly with pectic sugar supplements.Fig. 2.—

Bottom Line: Indicating functional and sequence similarity, Gonapodya, like many Dikarya, can use pectin as a carbon source for growth in pure culture.Shared pectinases of Dikarya and Gonapodya provide evidence that even ancient aquatic fungi had adapted to extract nutrients from the plants in the green lineage.This implies that 750 million years, the estimated maximum age of origin of the pectin-containing streptophytes represents a maximum age for the divergence of Chytridiomycota from the lineage including Dikarya.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia niuerchang@gmail.com.

Show MeSH