Functionally Structured Genomes in Lactobacillus kunkeei Colonizing the Honey Crop and Food Products of Honeybees and Stingless Bees.
Bottom Line: A gene flux analysis, including previously sequenced Lactobacillus species as outgroups, indicated the influence of reductive evolution.We suggest that these features have resulted from a genome-wide loss of genes, with integrations of novel genes mostly occurring in regions flanking the origin of replication.The results provide an extended framework for reductive genome evolution and functional genome organization in bacteria.
Affiliation: Department of Molecular Evolution, Cell and Molecular Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.Show MeSH
Mentions: Given the lack of codiversification between bacterial strains and hosts, we speculated that strains of different genotypes might be present in each host species. If so, there was a risk that we had sampled only a subset of the available strains as genome sequence data were obtained from only one isolate per host. To test for such potentially missed diversity, we amplified with PCR variable segments of the lepA and recG genes from 27 additional isolates from managed and wild subspecies of A. mellifera in Sweden, Kenya and United States, and from 60 isolates from the other 9 host species (supplementary table S8, Supplementary Material online). Overall, we found that most sequences from each host were of the same genotype as those of the sequenced genomes (fig. 8 and supplementary fig. S9, Supplementary Material online), suggesting that the strains selected for sequencing represent the most abundant strains in each host species sample. In cases where the sampling had been done from multiple sites for a given host species (honey, beebread, and/or the honey crop), the same genotype was normally recovered.Fig. 8.—
Affiliation: Department of Molecular Evolution, Cell and Molecular Biology, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.