Complete Genome Sequence and Transcriptomic Analysis of the Novel Pathogen Elizabethkingia anophelis in Response to Oxidative Stress.
Bottom Line: Chrome azurol sulfonate assay verified that siderophore production of E. anophelis is increased in the presence of oxidative stress.We further showed that hemoglobin facilitates the growth, hydrogen peroxide tolerance, cell attachment, and biofilm formation of E. anophelis NUHP1.Our study suggests that siderophore production and heme uptake pathways might play essential roles in stress response and virulence of the emerging pathogen E. anophelis.
Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.Show MeSH
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Mentions: Alignment of the draft genomes of available Elizabethkingia spp. (Teo et al. 2014) with the NUHP1 complete genome showed that there are several strain-specific genomic regions with low sequence identity (fig. 1). To identify the cause of these strain-specific genomic regions, we predicted the genomic islands (GIs) and visualized their distribution in the NUHP1 genome by using the IslandViewer server (Langille and Brinkman 2009). A total of 14 GIs were identified by either the SIGI-HMM or the IslandPath-DIMOB method used by the IslandViewer server (fig. 2). The distribution of GIs colocalized well with the strain-specific genomic regions among the different genomes of Elizabethkingia spp. (figs. 1 and 2). The functional annotation of genes carried by these predicted GIs is listed in supplementary table S1, Supplementary Material online. A large number of genes from the GIs encode products involved in generating transposons, virulence, efflux pumps, and capsule polysaccharides (supplementary table S1, Supplementary Material online), which emphasizes the potential importance of these GIs on survival of Elizabethkingia spp. under stressful conditions. A striking feature of the GIs is the existence of two large size conjugative DNA-transfer (Tra) regions at two different GIs (close to 0.5 and 4M of the genome) (fig. 2 and supplementary table S1, Supplementary Material online), indicating the importance of this mobile genetic element on modifying the genome content of E. anophelis NUHP1.Fig. 2.—
Affiliation: School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.