Genome-Wide Analysis in Three Fusarium Pathogens Identifies Rapidly Evolving Chromosomes and Genes Associated with Pathogenicity.
Bottom Line: We found a two-speed genome structure both on the chromosome and gene group level.Members of two gene groups evolve rapidly, namely those that encode proteins with an N-terminal [SG]-P-C-[KR]-P sequence motif and proteins that are conserved predominantly in pathogens.Specifically, 29 F. graminearum genes are rapidly evolving, in planta induced and encode secreted proteins, strongly pointing toward effector function.
Affiliation: CSIRO Agriculture Flagship, Centre for Environment and Life Sciences, Perth, Western Australia, Australia email@example.com.Show MeSH
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Mentions: One of our aims was to identify chromosomal regions in F. graminearum, F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici, and F. verticillioides that are under diversifying selection in the genus and might point to regions involved in host–pathogen coevolution. We first plotted ratios as well as links between orthologs for F. graminearum and F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (fig. 2, track II). This revealed known regions of macrosynteny, which have been attributed to ancient chromosome fusion events (Cuomo et al. 2007; Ma et al. 2010). As expected, regions without predicted orthologies in F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici are found most strikingly on the dispensable chromosomes 3, 6, 14, and 15 as well as at the lineage-specific ends of chromosomes 1 and 2 (fig. 2, track IV). In F. graminearum, regions without predicted orthologies occur predominantly in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes as well as in the center of chromosome 4. In F. verticillioides, regions without predicted orthologies are found in the subtelomeric regions particularly of chromosome 1, 4, 6, and 10 as well as in a small region of around 100 kb in the center of chromosome 7 (supplementary fig. S1, Supplementary Material online, track III).Fig. 2.—
Affiliation: CSIRO Agriculture Flagship, Centre for Environment and Life Sciences, Perth, Western Australia, Australia firstname.lastname@example.org.