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Altered Cognitive Control Activations after Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury and Their Relationship to Injury Severity and Everyday-Life Function.

Olsen A, Brunner JF, Indredavik Evensen KA, Finnanger TG, Vik A, Skandsen T, Landrø NI, Håberg AK - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

Bottom Line: TBI survivors also had increased activations related to time-on-task effects during stable task-set maintenance in right inferior parietal and prefrontal cortices.In conclusion, evidence was provided that the neural underpinnings of adaptive and stable control processes are differently affected by TBI.Moreover, it was demonstrated that increased brain activations typically observed in survivors of TBI might represent injury-specific compensatory adaptations also utilized in everyday-life situations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MI-Lab and Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

ROI analyses across healthy controls, moderate- and severe TBI survivors. The figure shows the results of planned polynomial contrasts following statistically significant MANCOVAs. Only statistically significant results are shown. Results are adjusted for age, education, and Not-X CPT performance (Δ Not-X CPT performance for TOT effects). TOT, time-on-task; ROI, region of interest; MFC, medial frontal cortex; IPL, inferior parietal cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex. Error bars represent ± standard error of estimated marginal means.
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BHU023F1: ROI analyses across healthy controls, moderate- and severe TBI survivors. The figure shows the results of planned polynomial contrasts following statistically significant MANCOVAs. Only statistically significant results are shown. Results are adjusted for age, education, and Not-X CPT performance (Δ Not-X CPT performance for TOT effects). TOT, time-on-task; ROI, region of interest; MFC, medial frontal cortex; IPL, inferior parietal cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex. Error bars represent ± standard error of estimated marginal means.

Mentions: A MANCOVA was used to investigate differences across healthy controls and TBI survivors in BOLD activation in the a priori MFC ROI, related to stable task-set maintenance and adaptive task control during the whole task. The assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes was not violated, indicating that the relationship between the dependent variables (stable task-set maintenance and adaptive task control) did not vary as a function of group (healthy controls, moderate TBI, and severe TBI), F6, 252 = 1.828, P = 0.094, and ηρ2 = 0.42. There was a statistically significant main effect of group, F4, 238 = 2.591, P = 0.037, and ηρ2 = 0.042. Univariate analyses revealed that the main effect was driven by an effect for adaptive task control, F10, 119 = 4.248, P < 0.001, and ηρ2 = 0.263. There was no statistically significant effect for stable task-set maintenance, F10, 119 = 0.822, P = 0.608, and ηρ2 = 0.065. The planned polynomial contrast demonstrated a significant linear trend for adaptive task control, P = 0.004, indicating that BOLD activation increased proportionally with injury severity when adjusted for age, years of completed education, and Not-X CPT measures (Fig. 1). There were no statistically significant differences between TBI survivors and healthy controls for the 2 main contrasts, stable task-set maintenance (task block > rest block) and adaptive task control (non-targets > targets) in the omnibus whole-brain analyses.Figure 1.


Altered Cognitive Control Activations after Moderate-to-Severe Traumatic Brain Injury and Their Relationship to Injury Severity and Everyday-Life Function.

Olsen A, Brunner JF, Indredavik Evensen KA, Finnanger TG, Vik A, Skandsen T, Landrø NI, Håberg AK - Cereb. Cortex (2014)

ROI analyses across healthy controls, moderate- and severe TBI survivors. The figure shows the results of planned polynomial contrasts following statistically significant MANCOVAs. Only statistically significant results are shown. Results are adjusted for age, education, and Not-X CPT performance (Δ Not-X CPT performance for TOT effects). TOT, time-on-task; ROI, region of interest; MFC, medial frontal cortex; IPL, inferior parietal cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex. Error bars represent ± standard error of estimated marginal means.
© Copyright Policy - creative-commons
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4494028&req=5

BHU023F1: ROI analyses across healthy controls, moderate- and severe TBI survivors. The figure shows the results of planned polynomial contrasts following statistically significant MANCOVAs. Only statistically significant results are shown. Results are adjusted for age, education, and Not-X CPT performance (Δ Not-X CPT performance for TOT effects). TOT, time-on-task; ROI, region of interest; MFC, medial frontal cortex; IPL, inferior parietal cortex; PFC, prefrontal cortex. Error bars represent ± standard error of estimated marginal means.
Mentions: A MANCOVA was used to investigate differences across healthy controls and TBI survivors in BOLD activation in the a priori MFC ROI, related to stable task-set maintenance and adaptive task control during the whole task. The assumption of homogeneity of regression slopes was not violated, indicating that the relationship between the dependent variables (stable task-set maintenance and adaptive task control) did not vary as a function of group (healthy controls, moderate TBI, and severe TBI), F6, 252 = 1.828, P = 0.094, and ηρ2 = 0.42. There was a statistically significant main effect of group, F4, 238 = 2.591, P = 0.037, and ηρ2 = 0.042. Univariate analyses revealed that the main effect was driven by an effect for adaptive task control, F10, 119 = 4.248, P < 0.001, and ηρ2 = 0.263. There was no statistically significant effect for stable task-set maintenance, F10, 119 = 0.822, P = 0.608, and ηρ2 = 0.065. The planned polynomial contrast demonstrated a significant linear trend for adaptive task control, P = 0.004, indicating that BOLD activation increased proportionally with injury severity when adjusted for age, years of completed education, and Not-X CPT measures (Fig. 1). There were no statistically significant differences between TBI survivors and healthy controls for the 2 main contrasts, stable task-set maintenance (task block > rest block) and adaptive task control (non-targets > targets) in the omnibus whole-brain analyses.Figure 1.

Bottom Line: TBI survivors also had increased activations related to time-on-task effects during stable task-set maintenance in right inferior parietal and prefrontal cortices.In conclusion, evidence was provided that the neural underpinnings of adaptive and stable control processes are differently affected by TBI.Moreover, it was demonstrated that increased brain activations typically observed in survivors of TBI might represent injury-specific compensatory adaptations also utilized in everyday-life situations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: MI-Lab and Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus