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Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

Zhang Q, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R, Mao G, Pappas A, Mack MC, Walters RM, Southall MD - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

Bottom Line: As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed.In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter.A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(A) Visible micrographs of control skin sections for two different treatments as labeled. (B) Infrared images of acyl chain perdeuterated oleic acid (OA-d) concentration and distribution in skin for the same sections. (C) Line plots of OA-d concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between the two controls as labeled in B (five adjacent lines of pixels).Notes: Blue: OA-d concentration; red: Amide II peak height. Magenta dashed lines indicate the detection limit of 3.0×10−3 M of OA-d. Scale bar is 100 µm.
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f5-ccid-8-329: (A) Visible micrographs of control skin sections for two different treatments as labeled. (B) Infrared images of acyl chain perdeuterated oleic acid (OA-d) concentration and distribution in skin for the same sections. (C) Line plots of OA-d concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between the two controls as labeled in B (five adjacent lines of pixels).Notes: Blue: OA-d concentration; red: Amide II peak height. Magenta dashed lines indicate the detection limit of 3.0×10−3 M of OA-d. Scale bar is 100 µm.

Mentions: Two control experiments were conducted to compare the penetration and distribution of OA in skin with the observed limited CER penetration. In the first control experiment, skin samples were only treated with OA-d. In the second, a suspension of proteated CER [NS] in OA-d was topically applied. Figure 5A shows the visible images of control skin sections and Figure 5B depicts IR images of OA-d concentration and distribution by integrating the asymmetric CD2 stretching band. A more homogenous distribution of OA-d can be observed penetrating into the SC and VE, mainly concentrating in the SC. In contrast to the spatial distribution of both CER classes, OA-d is not concentrated in glyph regions (see glyph region in bottom of last image on right). Similar line plots of OA-d concentration and Amide II peak height are also compared in Figure 5C. One line plot is shown for each type of control experiment and both show a more homogenous distribution of OA-d throughout the SC and VE.


Topically applied ceramide accumulates in skin glyphs.

Zhang Q, Flach CR, Mendelsohn R, Mao G, Pappas A, Mack MC, Walters RM, Southall MD - Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol (2015)

(A) Visible micrographs of control skin sections for two different treatments as labeled. (B) Infrared images of acyl chain perdeuterated oleic acid (OA-d) concentration and distribution in skin for the same sections. (C) Line plots of OA-d concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between the two controls as labeled in B (five adjacent lines of pixels).Notes: Blue: OA-d concentration; red: Amide II peak height. Magenta dashed lines indicate the detection limit of 3.0×10−3 M of OA-d. Scale bar is 100 µm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4493983&req=5

f5-ccid-8-329: (A) Visible micrographs of control skin sections for two different treatments as labeled. (B) Infrared images of acyl chain perdeuterated oleic acid (OA-d) concentration and distribution in skin for the same sections. (C) Line plots of OA-d concentration and Amide II peak height were compared between the two controls as labeled in B (five adjacent lines of pixels).Notes: Blue: OA-d concentration; red: Amide II peak height. Magenta dashed lines indicate the detection limit of 3.0×10−3 M of OA-d. Scale bar is 100 µm.
Mentions: Two control experiments were conducted to compare the penetration and distribution of OA in skin with the observed limited CER penetration. In the first control experiment, skin samples were only treated with OA-d. In the second, a suspension of proteated CER [NS] in OA-d was topically applied. Figure 5A shows the visible images of control skin sections and Figure 5B depicts IR images of OA-d concentration and distribution by integrating the asymmetric CD2 stretching band. A more homogenous distribution of OA-d can be observed penetrating into the SC and VE, mainly concentrating in the SC. In contrast to the spatial distribution of both CER classes, OA-d is not concentrated in glyph regions (see glyph region in bottom of last image on right). Similar line plots of OA-d concentration and Amide II peak height are also compared in Figure 5C. One line plot is shown for each type of control experiment and both show a more homogenous distribution of OA-d throughout the SC and VE.

Bottom Line: As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed.In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter.A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, USA.

ABSTRACT
Ceramides (CERs), structural components of the stratum corneum (SC), impart essential barrier properties to this thin outer layer of the epidermis. Variations in CER species within this layer have been linked to several skin diseases. A recent proliferation of CER-containing topical skin-care products warrants the elucidation of CER penetration profiles in both healthy and diseased skin. In the current study, the spatial distributions of CER concentration profiles, following topical application of two species of CER, were tracked using infrared imaging. Suspensions of single-chain perdeuterated sphingosine and phytosphingosine CER in oleic acid were applied, in separate experiments, to the surface of healthy intact ex vivo human skin using Franz diffusion cells. Following either a 24- or 48-hour incubation period at 34°C, infrared images were acquired from microtomed skin sections. Both CER species accumulated in glyph regions of the skin and penetrated into the SC, to a limited extent, only in these regions. The concentration profiles observed herein were independent of the CER species and incubation time utilized in the study. As a result, a very heterogeneous, sparse, spatial distribution of CERs in the SC was revealed. In contrast, oleic acid was found to be fairly homogeneously distributed throughout the SC and viable epidermis, albeit at lower concentrations in the latter. A more uniform, lateral distribution of CERs in the SC would likely be important for barrier efficacy or enhancement.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus